“一万小时定律”适合所有领域吗

「一万小时定律」并非适合所有领域,即使有很强意志力,也很难在3到4个领域成为世界顶级。

「一万小时定律」怎么回事:
首先需要说明的是,这个10000不是确数,不是说你得不多不少正好10000小时。大约可以理解成平均需要10000小时。比如说有研究显示,要达到国际象棋大师级水平,刻意训练的时间从3000小时到25000小时不等,差不多平均6700小时。

正如很多知友所言,这个说法来自K. Anders Ericsson的论文《The Role of Deliberate Practice in the Acquisition of Expert Performance》,所以要了解这个说法到底怎么回事儿,应该看看原始论文。
这篇论文的题目就明确指出Deliberate Practice,也就是刻意的训练。
其实,在19世纪的时候,就有说法,认为你只要是花足够时间,就能在你花时间的那个领域做得很棒,但是忽略了花时间练习的内容。到了19世纪末,就有人发现,其实如果仅仅是简单的重复,你很可能只是达到一个平台的水平,而不是达到最棒。所以,Ericsson提到了刻意训练这个概念。
为了能把刻意训练说清楚,Ericsson把刻意训练和另外两种活动做了对比,玩儿(play)和工作(work)。
玩儿(play)这种活动的特点,是没有一个明确的要实现的目标,你做这件事的目的就是为了内心的欢愉感。所以你每天去打篮球,玩儿的时候也是想要进球想要赢的,但是如果仅仅就是图在场上打篮球时的那份快乐而没有去“刻意训练”的话,仅仅是玩儿10000个小时,你是达不到顶级水平的。同理可得,你上了10000小时的网也成不了网络工程师,看了10000小时的电影也成不了优秀导演或者演员。你说你就靠玩儿着,就把自己玩儿成顶级专家了,那可能性很小。
工作(work)这种活动的特点,存在一定的重复性的劳动,而且往往还存在竞争,所以你在工作的时候可能也有一定压力,这样看上去比玩儿更“刻意”的训练了,那么能不能达到顶级水平呢?你算一下如果一个月工作20天,每天8小时,大约一年2000小时,于是工作5年的人是不是就成为你那个领域的顶尖级专家了呢?也不是。因为工作的一个重要特点,还在于它的驱动力在于外部奖赏,也就是你的薪水。你为了你的薪水去工作,当你对目前薪水满意的时候,可能也就失去了进一步突破瓶颈达到更高一个水平的动力。所以,世界上有很多职业运动员,但是他们中的顶尖级专家还在少数。工作10000小时,也不能让你成为顶级专家。

接下来就要看刻意训练了。
首先,刻意训练的目标,就是要让自己成为顶尖级的专家,要有为此而努力的精神动力。如果你仅仅是喜欢这种活动,仅仅靠爱好的支撑,而不是以顶尖级专家作为目标,在一些反复的训练之后,你的爱好可能会被耗尽。而刻意训练的过程是常常是痛苦的,枯燥的,可以说是磨练。如果没有足够的精神动力,可能很难坚持下去。刻意训练一个折磨人的原因在于,它迫使你一直处于认知阶段,在这个阶段,你得不停的关注并且努力提高自己的训练效果,而无法进入无意识阶段。

那么顶尖级的专家有什么特点呢?他们的一个重要特点在于超强的决策和执行能力。比如顶尖级足球运动员可以很快而且精准的阅读比赛,使自己出现在最该出现的位置,做出最适合的动作实现自己的想法,为球队获胜做出贡献。顶尖级的医生可以很快从各种信息中找出有用的,从而得出正确的判断,然后给出恰当的处理。
有心理学家认为,人们在做决策的时候,有两个判断系统,一个是经验系统,一个是分析系统。经验系统可以自主运作,轻松舒适,占用精力少,当然,可能也经常会出现问题;而分析系统需要你对复杂的信息作出处理,并且进行理性的分析,所以需要花费更多精力。经验系统不断的为分析系统提供建议:印象、直觉、意愿以及态度。如果这些建议被分析系统采纳,那么印象和直觉就会转化为信仰,灵感也会相应的转变为自主行为。
而我们大家都是“认知吝啬者”,就是说我们都倾向于省事儿,倾向于靠经验和个人直觉做出判断,我们喜欢利用经验系统,从而可以避开费神费脑的分析系统,减轻认知负担。
所以刻意训练就是训练你的经验系统。通过训练,你可以在无意识状态下行动,并且在相应领域内不用集中精神就能进行更高水平的思考。
就好像顶级足球运动员在场上时,机会稍纵即逝,他们的很多判断是直觉判断,但是也非常准,就是通过刻意训练使得自己在这方面的直觉判断的准确性提高。再比如一个年轻医生面对复杂患者或者复杂手术时,会觉得千头万绪,从而出现紧张和压力;而专家级别的医生,就可以凭借自己已经内化到经验系统的临床思维方式,很快的对信息做出分析和判断。
这些专家,在经历过刻意训练之后,可以轻松的感知自己所面临的形势,然后找到解决方法。

除了认知方面的训练,当然还有大家熟悉的实际行动上的训练。
其实,很多人通过简单的重复训练,都可以达到一定的水平。但是,这个水平其实还达不到顶级专家的水平,这只是你通往专家级别道路上的一个瓶颈,大部分人因为各种各样的原因,比如缺乏足够的精神动力,从而不会进一步的刻意训练磨练自己,也就只能停留在这个水平了。
比如说你是个业余乒乓球爱好者,在学校里经常可以获胜。这是一个不错的水平,但是,如果没有刻意训练的话,也就只是停留在这个水平了,还算不上乒乓球的专家级水平。
所以,刻意训练当然包括一些重复性的训练,但又远不止于此。它需要你以更加严格刻苦的训练来突破水平的瓶颈。

如果从我们所接受的传统教育来看,刻意训练里的认知和行动上的重复训练,倒是可以对应成理论和实践的学习和练习了。
下图是你进入某个领域后,不断提升自己时所经历的阶段,可以非常直观的表现出前面讲的内容。

图片来源:The Role of Deliberate Practice in the Acquisition of Expert Performance

刻意训练和普通的重复性训练一个很重要的不同在于反馈。
通俗的讲就是刻意训练需要有人的指点。试想一下,如果你重复性的训练过程其实都是错误的,那么你只会在错误的道路上越走越远。很多专家和普通从业者之间的差别,可能仅仅是某些细节上的,但是很多细节的积累,就表现出水平的差异。
阿图·葛文德是2010年“全球最具影响力100人”中唯一的一名医生。他曾经描述,自己工作多年之后,虽然已经达到一定水平,但是总感觉还不够满意,感觉总是突破不了上升的瓶颈。于是,他自己出钱雇了一位资深退休的外科医生,请他在自己手术时在旁边看,然后给出批评意见。结果发现,其实很多细节上自己是有上升空间的。所以他说,很多世界顶尖级的网球运动员尚且有自己的陪练教练,一个医生为什么不能有自己的教练呢?这也从一个侧面说明了反馈的重要性。
因为训练的结果,就是把理性判断内化到你的直觉之中,而你自己的直觉很难发现自己的问题,所以就需要专业的老师来给你指出。这个反馈不是表扬,而是非常明确的指出你的问题所在。只有不断发现自己的问题,然后加以改正,你才可以获得提高。

既然刻意训练的要求这么高,那么,要成为顶级专家水平,就要面临很多的限制。
比如前面提到的精神动力的限制。另外,还有努力程度的限制。比如有研究显示,要达到训练的强度,在不同的领域,可能需要坚持每天至少1-8小时不等的训练。当然,训练的设计也要科学,还有研究说,某些领域可能每天超过4小时的训练,效果可能不见得会更好;但是如果少于2小时,那么效果就肯定不是最佳了。
除此之外,还有资源上的限制。最简单的例子,像阿图医生那样的情况,前提是他能雇得到高水平的资深退休外科医生来给他反馈。

另外,人们在不同领域取得成就的年龄也各不相同,这和人类的体格发展、智力水平发展有关。最简单的例子就是,不同的运动,运动员的黄金年龄也各不相同。因此,要在最适合的年龄,达到相应领域的最佳状态,已经很不容易,就更不要说3到4个领域了。

所以,意志力其实仅仅是一个方面。如果你是平时下班回家业余时间从事训练,或者仅仅是做这份工作,即使搭上再多时间,也很难达到顶级专家水平。

那么「一万小时定律」是不是适合所有领域呢?
也不是。
很多人在关注某件事物的时候,可能更容易被他愿意关注的内容所吸引,而忽略了一些先决条件。在Ericsson论文开头,就提到了在运动、艺术和科学领域,就是说这个理论也是有限定条件的。但是,有很多关于「一万小时定律」的通俗书籍都把重点放在了赞赏刻意训练的好处上,而没有明确指出刻意训练在哪些领域不会产生什么积极效果。
2009年,诺贝尔奖获得者Daniel Kahneman和Gary Klein合写了一篇论文《Conditions for Intuitive Expertise:A Failure to Disagree》,讨论了关于直觉判断的一些内容。可以说给「一万小时定律」又做了很好的条件说明。
Kahneman的文章里认为,假如你所做的事情里,存在着一目了然、始终如一的因果关系,如果你反复做这件事,并且不断从外界获取准确反馈,改进自己表现,那么总有一天你会成为一名专家。
所以,存在一目了然、始终如一的因果关系,也就是「一万小时定律」的先决条件,Kahneman称为“高效”领域。比如医生和消防员从事的活动,就属于这个领域。这也和Ericsson文章是一致的。
而如果结果是完全无法预知的,那么就是“零效”领域。比如预测一个人买的股票的价值以及政府远期政策的预计,这都属于零效领域。在这样的领域中,各种干扰因素极多,运气成分很大,就算你下了很大工夫进行刻意训练,恐怕也难成为专家。
而在Michael J. Mauboussin的《实力、运气与成功》中,则把各种活动归结为实力与运气共同作用的结果,只不过有些事情实力的成分更大,有些事情运气的成分更大。
比如百米短跑就是实力几乎占了100%的活动,而买彩票则是运气几乎占了100%的活动。如果一头是买彩票,一头是百米短跑画一条直线的话,那么其他各种活动根据实力和运气成分的不同,就出现在这条直线的不同位置。所以,刻意训练可以改善一个人的实力,那么越是靠近实力一端的领域中,「一万小时定律」效果就越明显,越是靠近运气一端的领域,效果就越差。比如投资这项活动,其实就比较偏向运气一端,起码想要找个理想的反馈都很难,要说提高投资领域的直觉判断力,似乎就有点不大靠谱了。那么「一万小时定律」的效果恐怕就不是那么理想了。

最后,再多嘴说一点,其实,要成为世界级的顶级水平,恐怕只有刻意训练还不够,还得需要一点天赋。
不少和「一万小时定律」有关的书籍和文章当中,都过分强调了努力的重要性,好像一个人的表现和他的天赋没有什么关系,你只要花上功夫刻意训练就够了。但实际上,有研究显示,现有的证据,并不支持所谓的“个人天赋对他能否有高水平表现无关紧要”这样的观点;甚至根据不同人的天赋情况,可以更好的预测像国际象棋、音乐等很多领域中复杂任务的完成情况,以及预测在高水平执行者中谁最可能胜出。
在那些需要实力的活动上,个人天赋也很关键!就是说,通过刻意训练,在某些领域你可以达到顶级专家水平;而如果要强中更有强中手,成为世界级大师,恐怕就需要一些天赋了。

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背诵新概念英语3&4

背诵新概念英语首先说明新3这本教材的适用人群:高中英语水平。而新概念4是什么难度呢,4中的很多段落出现在翻译硕士的专业课翻译题目中,真心难翻,难度不言而喻,所以非英语专业人士的话不推荐。

起初不断听人说新概念3多好多好,索性买来一本背诵,每天一篇,真的做到了合上书可以背上一段,可是并没有觉得有什么提高,我想应该有不少人和我有相同的感觉,当然如果你背到滚瓜烂熟应该也会有点感觉,(没试过不知道什么效果)。打断一下,真心觉得英语水平达到一定程度后,有一位名师的指点显得尤为重要。那段时间我的英语学习也遇到了一些瓶颈,还好得到贵人相助(跪谢小C老师),后来我才发现先前的那一遍背诵毛用都没有。

1,当一个单词在你的脑海里没有对应的图片或动作,那么这个单词是无效的。拿第一课举例子好了,A puma at large 逃遁的美洲狮,你天天背puma美洲狮puma美洲狮,效率是很低的,谷歌一张puma的图片才是正解,以后你见了长得像豹子的那种动物就知道了:哦,it’s like a puma.
新3里面有很多需要你去搜图片的单词,avenue 林荫大道,这个单词大家都认识,但是有几个人看到avenue脑海里立马出现图片?(大家应该想到是一条很宽广的大道,然后两排的树木显得孤单弱小,而不是想到林荫!)还有arcade,有拱廊的街道,在新3第六课smash and grab里出现,如果大家知道arcade长什么样子,就会对里面那句 chairs and tables went flying into the arcade 有画面感,arcede是封闭的,两层的,比较窄的街道,两侧有卖东西的商店。这一课讲的是一帮劫匪去抢珠宝店,店主在二楼向楼下的劫匪砸烟灰缸,雕塑等等,你想想,在那样一条狭窄的街道,桌子椅子扔下来可不就是在乱飞吗,很有画面感。smash这个单词在脑海中应该对应一个动作:狠狠得砸。在这一课中,劫匪用铁棒iron bar砸珠宝店玻璃,用的就是smash,means to hit something bitterly with a tool. 或者当你生气的时候,抓起手边的东西就往墙上砸,也是用smash.
还有一个单词scramble,印象也很深刻,讲这群劫匪抢完后赶紧钻进车里逃跑,用的就是scramble,means to compete with others in order to get something,争抢,争夺。你想想,抢完后可不就是争先恐后的逃跑吗。这样记单词就很牢了,你要是拿着单词书背scramble争抢,scramble争抢,就算你记住了意思也不知道在什么语境下用。
还有什么flying squirrel,忘了第几课里出现的,飞鼠,谷歌了一下,真的是哇大开眼界,是像蝙蝠一样可以飞的松鼠!

再说几个印象比较深刻的单词,希望对大家有启发,后面第39课 nothing to worry about。讲的是一个死心眼子在一条pitted and bumpy的路上开车,路上到处都是boulders and bumps,然后车底下的石块不停hammer油箱,最终把油箱rip了,hammer是锤子榔头,当动词是用锤子锤,敲,你想想,那路磕磕绊绊的,可不就是像石子在敲打着油箱吗。最后油箱rip了,rip当动词是撕破,当名词是撕破的那个口子,裂缝,比如你的裤子太紧了,你一坐下来就呲啦一声rip了,或split也行,也指裤子裂了,在这里就是指石子把油箱划破了一个口子。
再往后第50课吧好像 new year resolution,很喜欢这一课,讲的是一个缺乏毅力的普通人想执行新年计划的故事,很生动,真的就是做两天就不想做了,里面有一句 twist human frames into uncomfortable positions,特别有画面感,把人体扭成各种不舒服的姿势,你想想,我们平时锻炼身体可不就是这样吗,刚好前几天去练瑜伽的时候,我在很艰难的做一个瑜伽动作,搞得各种疼,突然这句话就蹦到我的脑海了,我就是在把身体扭成不舒服的姿势,这就是锻炼身体。twist就是扭,弯曲,拧毛巾这个动作就是用twist。

2,很多人说新概念教材太老了,很多内容太陈旧,我觉得不会啊,他里面的动词用的很精准,还有一些短语,到现在都很高频,怎么会过时呢?而且很有意思,不会挫伤积极性,里面的写作手法也很值得我们去模仿。我真的是亚历山大老爷爷的忠实粉丝,跟身边的人推荐过N次,有一个同学听了我的买了,结果她看了几篇就放下了,因为她觉得太简单了,浪费时间,那我只能说你还太嫩了,品味不出这本书的精华所在。再拿第一课美洲狮举例,书上形容美洲狮用a cat-like animal,一个像猫一样的动物。是的,是很简单,都能读懂,而我想强调的是:你会X-like这种用法吗?中国学生说什么像什么,都只会用it’s like a …,而X-like这种用法就显得特别地道,比如像老外介绍饺子,你想想看,可以用什么-like呢?饺子像什么呢?能一说就让老外脑海中有画面的,我们可以用a ravioli-like food,像意大利方饺一样的食物,意大利方饺在国外餐厅还挺普遍的,基本上一说大家都知道,这样形容,老外就能秒懂:啊!我知道饺子是什么了。
以及这一课第二段的写作句式对仗工整:paw prints were seen in a number of places and puma fur was found clinging to bushes. Several people complained of cat-like noises at night and a businessman on a fishing trip saw the puma up the tree. 值得我们写作的时候去模仿。

对于单词的总结就是,希望大家能达到一种效果,即看到一个单词脑海中有图片或GIF动态图…比如rip,看到它你就要有一个裤子裂了的GIF,包括形容词也是,(底下告诉大家形容词怎么建立图片) 那么怎样培养这种能力呢?需要你见到一个单词就去查其英文释义和例句,用英文释义来记单词,而不是记中文意思。
词典上给的中文意思有时只能仅供参考,比如tuck,词典上给出的意思是卷起,挤进,隐藏等,但是结合其英文释义+例句,它最基本的意思明明是“掖”好吗!比如睡前妈妈给你掖掖被角,或者你衬衫下边掖进裤子里会显得很精神,都是用tuck,tuck同时也是具有文学性的一个词,在新3里第40课吧宁静田园生活的遐想illusion of pastoral peace , 好像出现过这层文学性含义,原句是…when the thousands that travel to work every day are tucked away in their homes in the country. 在这里当然不能译成人们都被掖在家里…在这里tuck的意思是well hidden in a quiet place 很好的藏在某个安静的地方。什么意思呢,在这篇文章里就是讲晚上的时候,城市里不再忙碌,成了一个deserted city ,被人遗弃的城市,人们白天在城里通勤,晚上就回乡村的家里了,我觉得tuck away用的特别好,如果让我翻译我会译成“窝在家里”,那种慵懒得蜷在沙发上那种感觉。如果大家经常读文学散文的文章也会常看到tuck away,比如a small village or a small house was tucked away in a mountain. 一个小村庄,小房子藏在山里,文学性一点就是:一个小村庄坐落于静谧的大山里。
所以对每个单词都要知道它的感情色彩,本意。再随便举一个assume,也是新3里常见单词,看到assume应该立马反应出:主观臆断。因此如果I assumes sth, you assume sth, 老练的阅读者都会秒懂,assume后面的内容通常是错的,只是你的或我的主观推断罢了,做个铺垫,后文才会揭晓真相。再来一个margin,最基本的意思是页边距,就是我们的写字本最上面那段不用写字的空白处,由此引申为小段距离,边际,边缘。
反正我学完新3,最大的感觉就是(眼不花了,耳不鸣了,一口气能上五楼)我再去阅读其他东西的时候:咦!新概念里的!哪里都是新概念!再拿第一课举例a puma at large,at large这个短语貌似很偏,如果经常看新闻的话,CNN,BCC都可以,有犯人越狱的新闻都会有at large,在逃的,逃之夭夭的。其实很常见。

下面不说单词了,说说新3里的句子和短语。
第一个draw attention to,出现在a lovely eccentric这篇课文里,可爱的怪人。这篇也是我很喜欢的文章,说真正的怪人从不刻意去哗众取宠。true eccentrics never set out to draw others ‘s attention. 这个短语非常好,draw本意是拉,pull 的意思,比如你想用被子蒙住头,你需要去draw你的被子over your head。或拉上窗帘draw the curtains,拉开窗帘用draw back(拉回去)。draw在这里引申为吸引,把别人的注意力拉过来。在小说《傲慢与偏见》里,描写达西先生的出场就用了这个短语,请看:Mr Darcy soon drew attention of the room. 达西先生瞬间吸引了整个屋子的人的注意力。不知怎的就觉得这句话写的特别好,印象很深刻。

第二个 Cats never fail to fascinate human beings。这个句子我太喜欢了,出现在新3第九课,flying cats 飞猫里。双重否定,等于肯定,且带有强调的意味。意思就是,猫总是能引起人们的极大兴趣。比我们写的那种句子:we always develop huge interest in cats. 高了几个档次好吗。
牢记这个句子后,我的口语都up了好吗,我那次回家抱了抱我表弟,脱口而出:I fail to hold you anymore ! 我都抱不动你了!瞬间觉得新3还是很有用的!

第三个dawn on me,这个短语太高端了好吗,出现在the Westheaven express,威斯特海威快车这篇课文里,这篇文章讲一个人坐错车的故事,说他突然想起这趟列车经过小站是不停的,用的it suddenly dawned on me that… dawn是黎明,晨晓的意思,就是我脑子里突然有点亮光了,突然明白了什么事,比suddenly understand 高了N个档次。乔布斯2005年斯坦福大学的演讲stay hungry, stay foolish,大家都知道吧,里面出现过这个短语,请看:But something slowly began to dawn on me, I still loved what I did. The turn of events at Apple had not changed that one bit. 就是讲虽然他被苹果开除了,他还是热爱这个事业。

看看新概念里的短语多常见,多好,怎么就过时了呢
最近在看哈利波特3,看到了第一课逃遁的美洲狮里的短语at large,赶紧拍下来给你们看。。。图片好像没上传成功,anyway,就在Chapter 3 The Knight Bus这一章节里,哈利把aunt Marge变成气球后离家出走坐上了这个巴士,第一次看到小天狼星的新闻报道,标题是:Black Still At Large 小天狼星依然在逃,逍遥法外,未被抓住这层意思,顺便多说一句,可能有人会问这句话为毛没有谓语动词,也成立吗?在新闻标题中,都是能简则简,省略了is,比如如果表示将来式的新闻标题将省略will,Black to be caught,表示小天狼星即将被捉住。
最后安利一下,哈利波特系列丛书真的很适合英文初学者,儿童文学读物吗,比较简单轻松,想要阅读英文原版书籍的朋友可以从这本开始读起。
下面讲几个形容词
formidable, 出现在Lesson 50 新年决心这一课,讲这个人列了一个很formidable的决心表,早上早起啊,节食啊,做家务啊等等,书上这个单词的中文解释是:令人生畏的。可能大家会觉得不好理解,意思就是too ambitious,你列的这个计划太雄心壮志了,就不太容易实现,比如一年之内我要升职加薪,当上总经理,出任CEO,赢取白富美,登上人生巅峰…这种计划就是formidable,我们要把大目标break down成一个个小目标来逐个攻破。
第二个单词intimidated,受到惊吓的,害怕的。我们来区分一下,娜塔莉波特曼去年在哈佛的演讲中提到自己当年入学时,身边的同学大都是出自有名的高中,写essay都是10页+的,而自己几乎没写过论文,于是觉得intimidated,就是觉得自己不如别人,被别人的气场,才能震惊到了。这种涵义的害怕。
下一个单词forbidding,望而生畏的。出现在lesson 34, 幸运的发现这一课,是讲古董店的,很多人都喜欢逛古董店,但对于那些装修太华丽的,却不敢进,觉得是一个forbidding place。我觉得这个还挺好理解的,我看到这个单词立马想到我在上海时看到的一家阿玛尼理发店,在中融大厦楼下,人家那个格调,那种感觉,对于我这种普通外地人来说真的就是一个forbidding place,估计进店基本消费就要上千吧…
再讲一个单词chip,凿。出现在lesson 35,伸张正义。讲一个小偷卡在了烟囱里,于是请来消防队员营救,他们凿透了墙壁把人救了出来,插一句题外话,记得lesson15,一个小孩把手伸进下水道里捞钱,胳膊卡在盖子上了,也是叫了消防队员来营救的,是不是在英国,小朋友手卡住了,烟囱里卡人了都属于fire brigade的责任?
好,回到chip,这个凿不是拿斧子电锯凿,是拿小工具仔细小心得凿,比如这篇课文里,烟囱里有人,肯定要小心点凿的,不然会伤到人。还有哈佛大学的幸福课里讲过一个故事:米开朗琪罗当初去菜市场闲逛时看见了a piece of marble,一块大理石,不愧是艺术家,他说他第一眼看到那块石头时,就仿佛看到了大卫,于是他用小刀一点点chip掉多余的部分,就有了伟大的,英姿飒爽的David~

用一套体系完善的教材是有多么的重要。如果你真的希望把英语学好,从现在起你应该放下app,停止浏览无穷无尽的零散的微博微信英文知识以及各类鸡汤。

|必备词汇、基础语法、常用词组、单词活用、日常表达、常用句型|这些最根本也是最重要的功底能力:你如果不掌握牢固,出国考试、流利口语、阅读文献、观看无字幕美剧等等这些令人羡慕的技能,你永远无法get到,对,就是这么绝对!

那么问题来了:如何学习新概念才能牢固掌握呢?

新概念三

学习目的:中高阶词汇的积累、常用词组、单词深度掌握、牢固语法体系、口语能力进阶、写作句型积累

适用人群:需要达到以上目的的所有人群

学习步骤:自学预习阶段+ 课堂教学阶段+ 课后练习阶段+ 清早朗读

自学预习阶段:先听两遍录音理解文章大意。然后开始学习自己不懂的单词和词组,将生单词抄写在笔记本,作为自己的词表,弄懂发音、词义。然后一个抄写三遍。然后每天将文章大声朗读5遍(至少坚持朗读一周)。有人说,单词怎么背?其实朗读的过程就是记忆单词的过程,这种记忆的好处在于你了解单词的用法,并能将词义与语境相联系。打破了以往的强行记忆的方法。

课堂教学阶段:一定要完成了第一步,再观看视频教学,边看视频边记笔记,并跟着我视频里的要求和我重复。

课件和视频讲解见:课件和视频讲解|新概念3

课后练习阶段:做练习前先整理课堂笔记,复习课堂内容。然后完成练习题。

清早朗读阶段:每天早上大声将文章读五遍。这是是贯穿整个学习步骤的,因为它是保证你深度记忆所学文章的关键。
这里聊一聊新概念4的学习方法。

总体来看,新概念4的学习可以分为语言以及思维两大块,对于语言部分我们的目标是积累好词好句以及扫清语法知识难点,对于思维部分则是理解文章深层含义,并通过查阅背景资料等方式对文章涉及到的话题做更加深入的了解。下面对这两个部分进行说明:

语言部分

1.课文精读

新概念4文章的来源和题材很广泛,包括名家作品和各大外刊等,这些文章在语言上值得学习的地方非常多,每一篇文章都应该采取精读的方式来对待。需要说明的一点是,对于新4的文章不要一味机械背诵,可以选择自己感兴趣的段落或者篇章,在充分理解原文的基础上进行熟读朗诵,这样才能学以致用。

新概念教材的每一篇文章都有对应的课文录音,在精读之前可以先听一到两遍录音,掌握文章大意,对于听不懂的地方在阅读的时候重点攻克。

由于新4课本对于生词只给出了简单注释,因此精读时建议手头放一本英英词典,通过学习词典的释义和例句来积累单词。同时,在读的时候要多关注语法和句式方面的知识。举个例子,下面是新4第八课的第一段:

Chickens slaughtered in the United States, claim officials in Brussels, are not fit to grace European tables. No, say the American: our fowl are fine, we simply clean them in a different way. These days, it is differences in national regulations, far more than tariffs, that put sand in the wheels of trade between rich countries. It is not just farmers who are complaining. An electric razor that meets the European Union’s safety standards must be approved by American testers before it can be sold in the United States, and an American-made dialysis machine needs the EU’s okay before is hits the market in Europe.

上面这段短短的节选中出现了很多知识点,比如:

(1)开头第一句话采用了倒装的方法,将布鲁塞尔官员的话提前,这样更有助于吸引读者的注意力。在claim officials in Brussels中,动词claim置于名词之前,这种用法在外刊中很常见,类似的例子还有:E-commerce is transforming business and daily life, mostly for the better, says Charlotte Howard.

(2)grace在这里是动词,含义是“为……增色”,例如:Her face has graced the covers of magazines across the world. 她的面孔出现在全世界各种杂志的封面上,使之赫然生辉。在这里grace European tables表面含义是“装点欧洲的餐桌”,可以引申为“进入欧洲食品市场”。

(3)这里注意到fowl后面的谓语是are而不是is,说明这是一个复数名词,查词典后发现fowl的复数形式写成fowl或者fowls都可以。

(4)It is differences in…that…是一个强调句,put sand in the wheels of something是一个比喻的说法,表面意思是“将沙子放到轮子里”,引申为“阻碍,阻挠”。

(5)英文写作强调用词多样性,而这种多样性可以通过替换词来实现,这里就出现了两组替换词:be approved by/ needs the EU’s okay,be sold in/ hits the market,这种替换很难通过查同义词词典来解决,它需要我们换一种说法来表达同一个意思。平时在阅读中可以多体会这种替换方法。

新4文章的精读过程可以参考上面的方法,这样能够踏实积累语言知识点。

2.练习题

作为一本教材,新4在每篇课文后面都精心准备了大量练习题,这些题目可以帮助我们更好地理解课文。课后习题包括词汇、句子结构、关键句型、难点以及多项选择题等,练习时可以重点关注关键句型、难点和多项选择题这三个部分。它们的作用分别是:

关键句型:训练我们对表达进行替换的能力,比如Our fowl are fine, we simply clean them in a different way. 可以替换为 Our fowl are fine, we simply clean them differently/with a different method.

难点:考察我们对单词的理解,帮助我们掌握常见的一词多义。

多项选择题:分为理解、句型和词汇三大部分,它们可以帮助我们梳理文章大意,避免阅读时出现“只见树木不见森林”的情况。

值得注意的一点是,新概念教材本身并没有包含这些练习题的答案,因此建议有需要的同学去查阅教材对应的《自学导读》:

《自学导读》专门为自学新概念英语的学习者设计,它的内容主要包含课文详注、长难句分析、词汇学习以及练习题答案。其中的长难句分析很详细,适合语法基础较为薄弱的同学阅读。

思维部分

新概念4教材的优秀之处不仅在于文笔优美,还在于文章体现出来的文化内涵以及思想深度。为了更好地利用这些文章来训练思维能力,我们可以采取以下方法:

1.复述

复述过程会迫使我们对文章的结构和大意进行梳理,这有助于我们更加深刻地理解作者要表达的意思,同时,复述也能让我们内化各种有用的知识点。关于复述的具体步骤我之前有写过,可以参考:怎样对一篇文章进行复述?

2.扩展阅读

对于一些涉及到哲学(第24课 Beauty)、社会科学(第44课 Patterns of culture)以及文学(第39课 What every writer wants)等类别的文章,有时候仅仅通过阅读课文本身很难真正理解作者要表达的意思,这就需要我们进行扩展阅读。

新4每篇课文最后都标注有其作者以及对应的书籍,我们可顺藤摸瓜找到更多关于作者和文章的信息。

举个例子,很多人读了第24课Beauty之后感觉文章不知所云,我们可以先试着去了解作者的主张以及时代背景。通过查找维基百科等资料后我们可以发现文章作者C. E. M. Joad是英国哲学家,他在早期信奉不可知论(agnosticism),认为第一原则的确定性或绝对真理无法达到,只有可感觉的现象才是真正意识的对象。Beauty一文选自他的书籍Pieces of Mind,这篇文章也是他不可知论思想的一个反映。

有了这一层背景知识之后我们才能更好地理解为什么Beauty一文中会出现类似下面的句子:

If we glimpse the unutterable, it is unwise to try to utter it, nor should we seek to invest with significance that which we cannot grasp. Beauty in terms of our human meanings is meaningless.

如果我们瞥见了只可意会不可言传的事物,企图把它说出来,那是不明智的;对于我们不理解的事物,我们也不应该去赋予它某种意义。用对我们人类有意义的词句来解释美是没有意义的。

同时,如果你希望更深入了解作者的主张,还可以对他的书籍Pieces of Mind进行通读。

与新概念前几册教材相比,新4无论是在语言难度和思想深度上都对学习者提出了更高的要求。如果能够认真学完这套教材,并且在此基础上做大量的扩展阅读,将英语作为获取信息的,那么相信你会有巨大的收获。

接下来,将以新概念3为例,来说明新概念英语系列丛书的正确学习方法。

首先说明新概念3这本教材的适用人群:高中英语水平,是全套NCE系列中的精华,第三册难度开始增大了,虽然也是诙谐的小故事,但篇幅大幅度增加拉长,而且故事之中加入了大段的议论说理性文字;而新概念4是什么难度呢,新概念4中的很多段落出现在翻译硕士的专业课翻译题目中,真心难翻,难度不言而喻,所以非英语专业人士的话不推荐。

[针对新概念3的学习方法]

第一步:通读全文,扫清生词,认真完成课后练习;

第二步:平时多听学过的文章录音;

第三步:精读,精读步骤如下:

1、买一支彩色的记号笔,开始读书,注意不要读中文解释,读的时候,最好把每个句子的动词都用彩笔标记出来,这样会大幅度提高你的长难句理解能力;

2、使用自问自答模式进行句式替换练习

这么一来,每句话都可以吃透,对自己记忆也非有帮助,但是耗时较长,每篇文章大约要读1个小时,不过非常值得,NCE3中每篇文章都值得精读。

3、听力灌输,把NCE3的录音打开,零碎时间多听

第四步:文章梗概的概括,也就是摘要写作

1、扫清一篇文章的生词

2、听录音或朗读课文3-4遍

3、根据印象,写出文章的梗概,如果觉得困难,翻开书到课后的习题,其中有一项,叫做Summary Writing,摘要写作,根据这道题目的提示,慢慢来写100字左右的故事梗概

4、根据自己的故事,换一个人称来叙述

5、两个月内完成,老规矩,每一课整理一道表达法,过了30天,开始改前面的作文,继续整理总结一道表达法

6、有些课文比较简单,所以可直接用NCE2的办法复述整理修改即可,不用还概括梗概摘要写作

如此这般下来,两个月后,可以吸收NCE3中约30%左右的内容,这么操作,可以让你的英文基础得到最大的提升。
首先介绍一下这套教材, 《新概念》一共有四册。
第一册 First Things First 和第二册 Practice and Progress 可以不学,当然如果你硬要看一下也可以,一二册和人教版初中课本难度相当。第三册 Developing Skills 是新概念的核心,也是诸多经典文章所在处,新概念第三册一共有60篇课文,课文长度也从最开始的250词到最后的500词左右,文章的难度总体和四六级水平差不多,也就是大多数人的水平,所以第三册比较之下最适合学习。第四册Fluency in English 是最难的一册,果断舍弃,难度远高于大多数人目前的水平,这一册共有48篇文章,包含了说明文,报刊,散文等。为什么舍弃呢?英语学习得遵循i+1原则,也就是你得找到比你现在水平高一点的材料学习,如果难度太多就是无效输入,根本没有效果。
所以,接下来我就详细罗列新概念英语第三册的学习方法。首先你得保证你有一定的语法基础和语音基础,不然学起来比较吃力。

最有效方法: 精读+精听。其实英语学习是一个综合过程,听说读写译不可分割,但是由于我们生长在先天劣势的非英语为母语的中国,所以不得不把英语学习分为听,说,读,写。

什么是高效率学习?

高效率学习就是你能在学习同一种材料时,同时训练听力,口语,写作,和翻译。这就是最大化整合时间,提高效率的方法。

具体操作秩序如下:

1首先不要看课本,盲听一篇文章,大多数同学只能听懂5-6成,听两到三遍,这

时大多数同学能听懂大意。如果能一遍全部听懂的就不需要学习新概念3了。
2听懂大意之后就到了方法的第二步,这一步是最重要的一步,用拉进度条的方

式一句一句把整篇课文听写下来,当然,如果你刚开始这个步骤会很艰难,记

住,坚持下去,不要想太多,课文大概400词,听写下来大概需要一个小时,不

要觉得这是在浪费时间,以后你会感激这种做法的!


3然后再听一遍,用不同颜色的笔改正,这一步你可以改正不少错误!


4打开课本,一句一句听,然后改,把所有错误改过来,这时候不用把改正的

抄下来弄个什么错误笔记,因为你有课本原文,以后复习只用你听写的原文

和改正的错误就可以了,这样你可以回忆起当时没写下来的原因,是单词不认

识,还是不熟悉,或是连读,弱读,或者其他。然后把不会的词全部查清楚。
5经过上面这四步你对于这篇课文基本上熟悉了,现在听的部分结束了。下面开

始读,跟着原文录音一句一句朗读3-5遍。因为你做过听写,所以读起来会比较

轻松。

6来到了第六步,这一步至关重要!运用你的语法知识一句一句把课文分析透

彻,把其中运用到的语法现象全部弄懂,不懂的标记现在问同学或者老师。语

法就像是一篇文章的脉络,把它抓住了你就抓住了文章的灵魂,反过来会极大

促进你对意群的把握,从而增强你的口语表达的清晰度,对听力也有极大帮

助。至于语法基础不好的同学,推荐买一本赖世雄老师的语法书,这个很好

找,在某宝搜一搜就有了,至于这本书,真是福泽天下英语学子,比某些大砖

头语法书好万倍,把这本书学完语法基本上就炼成了,至于这本书的详细介绍

我会在后面单独写一篇文章来阐述。

7经过语法分析,你已经对这篇文章掌握了七八成了,现在就到了写作阶段,当

然这一步可做可不做,因为不能保证每个人有足够时间,不过我还是推荐大家

做好这一步,这一步对你的写作帮助极大。

这一步就是回译法,回译法是千百年来西方人精学拉丁文的一种重要方法,以

前我国那些英语大师们也认为回译法非常适合英语学习,著名的李赋宁先生就

善用这种方法来学习英语。下面引一段李赋宁老先生在《英语学习经验谈》中

的一段话:”我还试过一种学习方法,就是翻译法。为了更加地学会用英文写文

学批评论文,我曾下过笨功夫,就是选了一本正中书局出版的《意大利文艺复

兴时期文学批评史》。这本书原文是英文,有人把它译成中文。我试着把这本

书的中文译文再译成英文,拿我的英文译文和该书的英文原文比较,对照。然

后自己修改自己的译文,再和原文对照。这样通过对照,修改,反复练习,来

提高自己的英语笔头表达能力。”

 

回译法比较简单,就三步,第一步把课文译为中文。第二步,把中文译为

英文。第三步完,也是最重要的一步,对比自己的英文译文和原文,

把原文好的表达记在笔记本上然后修改自己的译文

当然,这一步如果没有良好的语法基础和一定的词汇量就别做了,毕竟有一定

难度。

8最后一步到了口头表达阶段,你经过上述步骤已经把把整篇课文完完全全吃透

了,现在就需要回忆复述,把你觉得好的表达用上。在复述可以自己想着变换

情景,变换人称,变换时态,边复述边录音,然后听录音把表达中的语法错误

记录下来,在下次录音之前留意一下,一遍一遍,直到录到一个令你满意的版

本,这样下来,你就能活用原文的表达到日常口语当中,而且这样的表达很有

档次,是那些口语书不能笔的。

总结,这七步(不算上回译)大概会花掉五个小时,很多同学会觉得太浪费时间

了,不过我得提醒大家,英语习得是为了用,是主动词汇,不是学习完就

放在大脑深处的消极词汇,你如果能像这样坚持下来把新概念三学完,你的

英语水平可以说比现在绝大多数人要好很多

记住,笨就是聪明,慢就是快。

别相信市面上那些几天,几周速成法,钱花了,什么也没学着,最后打击自己

的信心,

我是衷心希望英语习得者能把英语当作一种习惯,每天坚持,有效习

得,不出四年,便可有所成就!
尽管我只背了第一册还有一部分第二册(其间我经历了太多,堕落了一次,不多赘述),但《新概念英语》还是让我受益匪浅,真的。
我是自学的,要说“正确使用”,我学一篇课文的步骤是:背单词→听录音n遍,快的不行慢点,直到听明白→大声读课文(简单粗暴),直到 脱口而出(加粗)→做习题→利用空余时间再听录音,背诵
总之我觉得最重要最重要的就是――脱口而出。我指的不单单是背的滚瓜烂熟,比如第一册某课有句话:That’s impossible.很简单的一句话吧,但有次我和同学聊天,想说不可能,不知不觉就说出这句英文了,我当时都惊呆了,我觉得就像玩魔方肌肉记忆一样,
不受控制就说出来了,我平时总觉得谈话中夹杂英文是在装逼,而我自己竟情不自禁地说出一句英文。(我语无伦次了@_@)
本人即将小升初,正奋斗中,共勉之。

学习的时候用的是人教版的英语,直到后来教别的孩子英语才接触新概念。

真心喜欢新概念的课文。就好比:

学完人教版英语的学生像从印度回来的;学完新概念的学生才是真正从英国回来的。(当然这些是抛出了很多外在因素你懂的)

严谨的体系、经典的选材、地道的语言和优美的发音。其实很多没学习过这个教材的自认为英语很牛的人再回来看这个教材,也会从中学到很多东西。

我一般给学生推荐视频形式的新概念课文讲解:具体内容可以在1号教室网搜“新概念”;

这样一方面能弥补自己口语方面的不足(别害了孩子的发音。。。),一方面也可以在让孩子听这些课的时候适时补充一些自己的内容,或解决孩子的疑惑,进步真的不是一般的快!

小学的时候,大家英语都90+,只有我每次都是40左右。我妈一着急,不知道从哪听来的方法——背课文。

我从小学四年级到初一,她每天晚上都逼着我背新概念1.2.3,背到她说哪册的第几篇我都能直接背下来,滚瓜烂熟。也没报班具体去学这个。

里面好多单词都是强行记住的,语法什么的也基本上不知道,毕竟我开始背新概念3的时候才6年级。就是背中文翻译,然后背英语课文。

我现在想起来,我妈这一举动,简直奠定了我将近10年英语的辉煌。

高中学理,期间基本上没在英语上耗费时间,就写完作业就得了。最后高考竟然考了146,本来放在第一个想冲一把的大学,竟然高了提档线7分。

大学期间因为入学考进了英语A班,就只学了一学期英语,后来就没碰过。4级刷了一星期真题,考了609;6级裸考562。

去年考研,英语一。期间背了新东方乱序,做了两遍真题,背了几篇作文。每天拿给英语的时间最多一个半小时,最后冲刺阶段除了每天背一篇作文就没再学英语了了。最后考了85。

现在无比感谢我妈,这还不错的英语成绩可是帮了我不少忙,在我人生目前两次重大考试中发挥稳定而且节省了好多时间。其实当年简直要烦死她了,背后还骂过她。

(*╯3╰)妈妈我错了。

【晚自习】一本“自由生长”的新概念英语何以成为宝典

一个字:背。靠着背完第三册,我考过了专八,而且是在没写一张专八卷子的情况下。

以前咱的语法只能说是平均水平。背完NCE3之后,英语写作各种非谓各种从句随便用
等咱背完NCE4之后再接着回答
滚去背书了

开始背,,,好好学英语,,,一个月后以后分享

把第二册和第三册背完 你应该可以达到一个很高的水平了 第四册以泛读理解为主。

很多人经常问,如何学习新概念,新概念是不是过时了,如何感受新概念的美?这些问题不容易一两句回答,得看你的语言功底和对它的熟悉和理解程度了。我只能说读一遍和读十遍的体会不同,读十遍和读百遍的理解不同。讲一遍和讲十遍的感受不同,讲十遍和讲一百遍的境界不同。

大多数人看新概念看不出个名堂,理解片面,就因为是学习得不够精,不够深。就像下图,一个人看到的也许就是一只破碗,但了解它的人都知道这就是宋徽宗口中,“青如天,面如玉,晨星稀”,以名贵的玛瑙入釉,独一无二,价值连城的千年汝瓷。

我在这里斗胆剖析新概念三册的41课,算作抛砖引玉,供大家体味。我不会联想扩展和本课不相关的词汇,更多地侧重文章本身的用词,句式,逻辑,篇章的挖掘和赏析,提供大家一种新的思考和学习方式罢了。

所以,关于what(单词的用法,词组的搭配)的问题,大家自己查字典就可以了,不想赘述,我更多的讲how(如何阐述深化扩展主题),以及Why(为什么要这么写,为什么这么写精彩)。这篇文章更适合于已经学过新概念三册三遍以上的你,阅读时注意括号内的解释。

Illusions of pastoral peace
(原文标题中文翻译有误,哪儿错呢? illusions这个词不能叫“遐想”,本义是:false idea or belief, especially about sb or a situation,它的核心意思是“ it may look real, but it’s actually fake”,中文叫 “错误观念,错觉”,比如像魔术师 old rabbit-out-of-the-hat trick 就是 illusion。 而“遐想”,有点像 “畅想,憧憬” 并没有强调fake。另外、peace这个词,这里应该既指 “生活的宁静”,也应指“人与人相处的和睦友善”,这一点你在文章中的论证是能够看到的。所以标题可转译为“安宁祥和乡村生活的假象”,这样理解标题,你就知道作者的写作方向了,他不喜欢不认同这种生活,他要批判,反驳这种大众的传统错误观念。很多国内外考试阅读,包括新三的许多篇章的标题是都能看出作者的写作思路的,所以标题值得研究。)

(1) The quiet life of the country has never appealed to me. (开篇点题,开门见山。这是一个极好的主题句,既包含了主题词 the quiet life of the country, 又包含了主题思想 never appealed to me. 使用短句,简洁明快,清晰直白,力度强大,我们很多同学写作文,喜欢长句,看似复杂实则松散。另外,要注意 “吸引”这个表达,这实际上是和前面三课的衔接:第9课的 “猫总能吸引人” Cats never fail to fascinate human beings. 第23课的 “这个想法从来没有吸引过我” The idea never appealed to me very much. 第34课的 “古玩店是对许多人有独特的吸引力” Antique shops exert a peculiar fascination on a great many people. 前三课都是 “物吸引人”,可见作者写作同义词替换之频繁,写作功底之深。而我们也可以造仿句,同样41课的这句话,可以表达为①The quiet life of the country has never fascinated me. ②The quiet life of the country has never held a fascination for me. ③The quiet life of the country has never had great appeal for me.这是新三牛的一方面,在不同的课文之间使用不同的表达,非常值得我们学习。无论你参加任何考试,只要提到“物吸引/不吸引人”,就可以用这些高级表达了,比如 “朋克文化对我毫无吸引力 Punk culture has never appealed to me,出国读书的想法一直吸引着我 The idea of studying aboard has always had a fascination for me. ”)

(2) City born and city bred, I have always regarded the country as something you look at through a train window, or something you occasionally visit during the weekend.(这是语篇中的辅助句,支撑主题句。你看看人家的辅助句,多么具体,形象化。他把乡村比作了两个something,后带定语从句,具体解释阐述前面的something,“我因为生长在城市,乡村生活离我太遥远,我只能坐火车时和偶尔在周末旅游见到它而已,所以我对它不感冒”,解释了前面的主题句。这里有个很牛的表达,叫“生在城市,长在城市”,文中是复合形容词做原因状语,修饰主语。比我们常用的grow up/ raise 要好多了。比如,我在中国出生长大的,就可以说I was born and bred in China. 再比如,因为他生在城市,长在城市,所以有一种优越感。 City born and city bred, he has a sense of superiority.新概念三册有无数经典的表达,这算一例)

(3) Most of my friends live in the city, yet they always go into raptures at the mere mention of the country. (从这句开时,作者就开始批判乡村生活了,那是谁有的错误观念呢? 原来是我朋友啊。这里的语言显得非常精悍强大。比如,raptures: a feeling of extreme pleasure and happiness,它和ecstasy 是一个级别的,中文对应为“狂喜,欢天喜地”,给人感觉是:狂喜的程度宛如人被带入了另一个世界(feeling so magical it’s almost as if you’ve been transported to some other world),所以它在和标题的illusion衔接着,这种同义替换实在是高!另外,这一句后的 at the mere mention of …一个mere 又表现出作者对他朋友哭笑不得,你住在城市,怎么“仅仅”一提到“乡下”两个字,你就跟吃了迷幻药一样呢?还是正常一点吧。最后到这里,你可能不会注意到,文章前三句话,作者连续用了四次频度副词,它们分别是: never—always –occasionally- always,你如果稍微懂一些频度副词的用法,就会知道这四个词使用得多么恰当了,不理解的话,我给你换一组, seldom-usually-often-usually. 体会到差别了吗?^_^)

(4) Though they extol the virtues of the peaceful life, only one of them has ever gone to live in the country and he was back in town within six months. (注意作者的衔接手段,主语和前文一样,都是“我朋友”,从语法上强化逻辑;另外,语义上逻辑性更强,因为在句子都是用对比来批判我朋友的,那么本句话的对比又从哪里看出来呢?① 代词they- one,你们这么多人说乡下好,怎么就一个去了呢?② ever: used for emphasis when you are comparing things 这是典型的作对比时的语气语气词,译为“曾经”,如 It’s my best ever score. 这是我得过的最好分数。③语义,你说它好,你怎么就待了6个月就返程了呢,所以嘲讽之意不言自明。另外,这里的用词极精彩,extol是高级版的praise <praise something very much>,virtues是高级版的 advantages<advantages that makes sth better or more useful>,暗含比较之意。extol the virtues of 正式高级,该表达用在什么作文上都是闪光点,值得我们学习。另外,这句话和上一句句式,用词一一对应,ever 对应 mere, though(让步)对应yet(转折),extol the virtues 对应 go into raptures,看出语言的工整了吗?^_^)

(5) Even he still lives under the illusion that country life is somehow superior to town life.(作者的批判对象从Most of my friends 到one of them/he,找到了这个“典型”,别人没去过,胡思乱想就算了,你去了,而且自己6个月就打了退堂鼓回到了城市,回来后还大吹特吹乡下就是好,岂不是自己打脸,且看此句感情色彩词汇的even- still-somehow,尤其是somehow用得精彩至极,“你问我为啥乡下比城市好,我也不知道为啥,反正就是比城市好”。把他朋友这种“不切实际,蛮不讲理”,表现得淋漓尽致,妙!这句也显示出了全文的论证焦点,即country life vs. town life. 而作者用到了一个高级表达A be superior to B,A 比 B好,如果你写肯定用 be better than了,这里实际上是比较级的其他表达方式,即or结尾的形容词内含比较含义,如inferior 或 superior。比如,吃素要比吃肉好 Vegetarian diet is superior to meat diet. 还有一个句式很棒,就是live under the illusion that.,比如,我到现在还生活在这样的错觉中,觉得有一天我会成为百万富翁。I still live under the illusion that one day I would become a millionaire.)

(6) He is forever talking about the friendly people, the clean atmosphere, the closeness to nature and the gentle pace of living.(这句话是本文的第一个平行结构,你也可以把它看作工整的并列句,句式相近,读起来朗朗上口。注意这里的the都指乡下,四个名词词组的例子,指乡村生活的四个优点:人,空气 <竟然用atmosphere而不用air,这得是多厚的空气啊 ^_^>,自然,生活节奏,具体形象,贴切直观。我们写作文一定要写例子,不能老是讲理论,讲道理。但这句话却体现了作者对他的这种说法的不厌其烦,哪里呢?就是be forever doing了,言外之意是 talk too often, especially in a way annoys me. 你怎么每次见我都要絮絮叨叨,翻来覆去地讲这些讲个没完呢? 这是作者明显不认同他的做法的表现。同样的用法,第二课也有Our vicar is always raising money for one cause or another. 当时表明作者对牧师这种做法不赞成的抱怨,所以语言是有”表情”的 ^_^)

(7)Nothing can be compared, he maintained, with the first cockcrow, the twittering of birds at dawn, the sight of the rising sun glinting on the trees and pastures. (本句话非常精彩,一、形式上,作者用到了一个牛×得很的句式,Nothing can be compared with… “没有什么能与之相比…”看起来是“比较”,实则为“最高级”含义,你比如,你夸你女朋友美 You are beautiful 和 Nothing can be compared with your beauty<没有什么能够和你的美貌相提并论> 赞美级别是不同的。 这个句式和23课 No creature has received more praise and abuse than the common garden snail.用法相同, 同时它和本文第8行be superior to 的句式遥相呼应着,看出变化了吧。二、内容上,此句话继续举例说明乡村生活的另外3个优点(鸡鸣,鸟叫,旭日),加上前面的一共就是7个优点了,注意这七个都是名词短语,形象具体,互不交叉,这种细节描述得相当到位。但七大有点却用了短小的七个“小矮人”词组,更体现出作者对于朋友对乡间夸奖之词的一笔带过,不屑一顾,表明他并没有被这些东西所吸引。三、这句话的用词,twitter 好似能够听到鸟儿叽叽喳喳的声音,比sound 好多了,glint 真是绝配(give small flashes of light),旭日阳光洒在牧场和树丛上,感受到阳光是那样的明净和煦。你换个flash试试,保准感受不同,体会不到的朋友,可以想想晚上看车,对面那家伙flash his headlights at you ^_^)

(8) This idyllic pastoral scene is only part of the picture.(看到短句的作用了吧,简明有利,和前面的冗长的长句形成对比,实际上好的文章都是长短交替使用 <新概念三很多优秀的文章都是如此>,因为功能不同。短句,简洁,明快,有强调的作用。而长句比较精确,严密,有使行文流畅的作用,我们很多同学写作文喜欢走极端,要么只写短句,写得粗糙简单,要么只写长句,写得松散凌乱。同时,这句话,开始吹响反攻的号角,作者开始反驳他朋友的观点了。“你说的这一切仅仅是乡下生活的一部分而已”,言外之意:你怎么只挑优点讲,不说缺点呢?这是作者论证非常聪明的一点,即“避其锋芒,击其惰归”,我避开你的强项,专挑你弱的地方进行攻击,显得更加有力。另外,用词上一个idyllic 体现出作者反讽,一个only 表明了作者的态度,又是两个有“表情”的用词)

(9)My friend fails to mention the long and friendless winter evenings in front of the TV-virtually the only form of entertainment.(这是他朋友论点的第一个软肋:lack of entertainment in winter evenings, 谁都知道乡下人烟稀少,那冬天呢?冬天的晚上呢?注意这两个修饰形容词,long漫长难熬,friendless没有朋友,后者尤为精彩,让你写肯定会写lonely, 但是这里强调 without any friend, 是的,没有朋友陪你聊天说话,你只能每晚对着电视看6个小时直到睡着,怎一个“孤单寂寞冷”,你能受得了?同时作者用一个同位语讲TV,再次强调,说明这就是唯一的娱乐方式,看到了吗?这个only和前一句话的only,隔岸照应,互唱互和 ^_^)

(10) He says nothing about the poor selection of goods in the shops, or about those unfortunate people who have to travel from the country to the city ever day to get to work. (这里,作者连续提了他朋友观点的另外两个软肋:poor selection of shopping, long-distance commuter, 即“购物”和“交通”,加上之前的“娱乐”,住在乡下一共有3个缺点了。如果你对比一下前面乡村的所谓的“七个优点”,你就能理解为什么作者对他朋友的话嗤之以鼻了,前面那个是七个小矮人,这里是三座大山。你让我每天听两句鸟叫,自己一个人晚上孤单寂寞冷忍受慢慢长夜,吃十个月的蔬菜不换样,然后每天还得浪费5个小时在上下班的路上,我有病啊?所以,住在乡下是典型的“丢了西瓜拣芝麻”“因小失大,得不偿失”的做法啊。同时,你可能没注意到,作者在驳斥他朋友的观点时,不仅在内容上反驳,连句式都是对应的,比如,表达“他朋友说”,作者用了(6) He is forever talking about… (7), Nothing can be compared, he maintained, …;表达“他朋友没说”,作者用了(9) My friend fails to mention…, (10)He says nothing about…连续四次表达,每次都用不同的“说”,工整又不失变化,对照又不乏差异,逻辑衔接自然又紧密,妙!^_^,我们在写观点对比的文章,是不是也可以学习这种表达呢?同时,很多同学写作逻辑性不强,甚至混乱,看看人家是怎么排兵布阵的。)

(11) Why people are prepared to tolerate a four-hour journey each day for the dubious privilege of living in the country is beyond me. (该句承接上句话的unfortunate people, 衔接自然,突出“交通”问题是最大的缺点,即三座大山中最痛苦的一个,在中关村上班,却住在燕郊的你是否有同感。这句话很特别,头大尾小(why引导的主从),其实应该说成 It is beyond me why people …. 那为什么要这么说呢,因为作者要强调beyond me, 即It is too difficult for me to understand,再次呼应主题。同时,这句话书面语表达极为丰富:dubious意为doubtful;privilege意为special advantage;beyond me 意为 I don’t understand,其实我们很多同学写作文用词都太口语化,要学习这种书面体表达。)

(12) They could be saved so much misery and expense if they chose to live in the city where they rightly belong. (典型的结尾句,这里的misery and expense 即对应着前文:long and friendless winter evenings, poor selection of goods, 以及 long-distance traveling,而解决的方式即是live in the city,后面的where定语从句,尤其是rightly belong, 给人一种“理应如此”“为什么不”的感觉。另外,此句话的语法用得也很精彩,一是、虚拟语气<could 和chose>,呼吁对象是那些目前住在乡下的城市人,二是、为什么用 could be saved ,而不用could save,因为你说they could save 可能更顺畅,实际上这里是说living in the city could save them so much misery and expense,变成被动不就是They could be saved so much misery and expense 吗?用被动更能体现:你们得来住在城市,别不愿过来,住在城市能减少你多少痛苦和开销啊。全文到这里第一段结束,一气呵成,无一句多,无一句少,用词多样,句式灵活,逻辑清晰,结构缜密。)

 

我个人被问到怎么开始重学英语,必推荐《新概念》。

1,靠谱。
课本里面,暂时没有发现更好的。而且基础,全面。

2,便宜。
书本身不贵,而且目测当初都可以借。
然后网上各种相关周边都是免费的。
理论上一分钱都不用花。

3,科学。
不展开了,别的答友都说了。

我说一条个人感受:
我自己英文一般般,按坡县外国人测试标准属于中级偏高。

日常交流差不多,基本上可以用英文讲课(我是老师)。

看电影美剧等日常的东西,问题不大不用查字典。

但是!

新概念四,对我略有难度。也就是说我的词汇量听力也就是大学四六级水平。

当然不是听不懂,而是久不系统学习了。而且课本学习是精读精听,和平时领会大意习惯不一样。

嗯,所以,大学六级水平,已经够牛逼了其实。

不过偷偷说,朋友里美国研究生留学回来又国际学校做老师业余带小朋友英语的,好像聊天口语和我也差不多少……可能是我嘴皮子太能忽悠了。

另一个哑巴英语朋友的原话:Chas,你说的话都很简单,词也特普通,为什么你能那么溜呢?

呵呵,童鞋,组合输出才是王道啊。

English proverbs, idioms, popular sayings

A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush
A bunch of fives
A chain is only as strong as its weakest link
A countenance more in sorrow than in anger
A Daniel come to judgement
A diamond in the rough
A diamond is forever
A different kettle of fish
A dish fit for the gods
A dog is a man’s best friend
A drop in the bucket
A drop in the ocean
A fate worse than death
A feather in one’s cap
A fish rots from the head down
A fish out of water
A fly in the ointment
A fool and his money are soon parted
A fool’s paradise
A foot in the door

A foregone conclusion
A friend in need is a friend indeed
A golden key can open any door
A good man is hard to find
A hard man is good to find
A hiding to nothing – On
A house divided against itself cannot stand
A knight in shining armour
À la carte
À la mode
A legend in one’s own lifetime
A leopard cannot change its spots
A little bird told me
A little knowledge is a dangerous thing
A little of what you fancy does you good
A load of cobblers
A load of codswallop
A man after my own heart
A man who is his own lawyer has a fool for a client
A ministering angel shall my sister be
A miss is as good as a mile
A nation of shopkeepers
A nest of vipers
A no-brainer
A nod is as good as a wink
A norange
A penny for your thoughts
A picture is worth a thousand words
A piece of the action
A pig in a poke
A place for everything and everything in its place
A plague on both your houses
A priori
A red rag to a bull
A riddle wrapped up in an enigma
A rolling stone gathers no moss
A rose by any other name would smell as sweet
A rose is a rose is a rose
A safe pair of hands
A sea change
A skeleton in the closet
A sledgehammer to crack a nut
A shot in the arm
A sight for sore eyes
A sorry sight
A stitch in time saves nine
A stone’s throw
A thing of beauty is a joy forever
A tinker’s damn
A turn up for the books
A watched pot never boils
A wolf in sheep’s clothing
A woman needs a man like a fish needs a bicycle
A woman’s place is in the home
A word in edgeways
A word in your shell-like
A1 at Lloyds
Abandon all hope ye who enter here
Abide with me
About face
About turn
Above board
Abracadabra
Absence makes the heart grow fonder
Absent without leave
Absolute power corrupts absolutely
Accidentally on purpose
Accidents will happen
According to Hoyle
Ace in the hole
Achilles’ heel
Acid test
Acronyms
Across the board
Act of God
Act the giddy goat
Action man
Adam’s ale
Aga saga
Against the grain
Age before beauty
Age cannot wither her, nor custom stale her infinite variety
Agree to disagree
Aid and abet
Aide-mémoire
Air kiss

Air quotes
Al fresco
Alas, poor Yorick! I knew him, Horatio
Alike as two peas in a pod
Alive and kicking
All agog
All at sea
All fingers and thumbs
All Greek to me
All in all
All intents and purposes
All of a sudden
All present and correct
All publicity is good publicity
All singing, all dancing
All that glitters is not gold / All that glisters is not gold
All the tea in China – Not for
All things come to he who waits
All things must pass
All you can eat
Alter ego
Amber nectar
An albatross around one’s neck
An apple a day keeps the doctor away
An arm and a leg
An axe to grind
An Englishman’s home is his castle
An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth
An ill wind
An offer he can’t refuse
An Oxford scholar
Anchors aweigh
Angry young man
Ankle biter
Annus horribilis
Another think coming
Apple of my eye – The
Apple pie order
April fool
Arm candy – see ear candy
Arms akimbo
Ars longa, vita brevis
Arty-farty
Asap – As soon as possible
As X as Y
As alike as two peas in a pod
As bald as a coot
As black as Newgate’s knocker
As brown as a berry
As busy as a bee
As cold as any stone
As cool as a cucumber
As cute as a bug’s ear
As daft as a brush
As dead as a dodo
As dead as a doornail
As different as chalk and cheese
As easy as pie
As fast as greased lightning
As fine as frog’s hair
As fit as a butcher’s dog
As fit as a fiddle
As good as gold
As good luck would have it
As happy as…
As happy as a clam
As happy as a sandboy
As happy as Larry
As high as a kite
As keen as mustard
As mad as a hatter
As mad as a March hare
As nice as ninepence
As old as Methuselah
As old as the hills
As pleased as Punch
As pure as the driven snow
As safe as houses
As queer as a nine bob note
As snug as a bug in a rug

As straight as a die
As the crow flies
As thick as thieves
Thick as two short planks
As white as snow
Ashes to ashes dust to dust
Ask a silly question and you’ll get a silly answer
(Ask not) for whom the bell tolls
(H)asta la vista, baby
At loggerheads
At one fell swoop
At one’s beck and call
At sixes and sevens
Augur well
Auld lang syne
Away with the fairies
Baby blues
Baby boomer
Baby father
Back of beyond – The
Back-seat driver
Back the field
Back to basics
Back to square one
Back to the drawing board
Backroom boy
Bacon – Bring home the
Bad books
Bad egg
Bad hair day
Badger to death
Bag and baggage
Baker’s dozen
Balance of power – The
Balance of trade – The
Bald as a coot
Bale out/bail out
Ball and chain
Bandy words
Bane of your life
Bang on about
Baptism of fire
Barge-pole – Wouldn’t touch with a

Barking mad
Barking up the wrong tree
Barrel of laughs
Basket case
Bated breath
Bats in the belfry
Batten down the hatches
Battle royal
Be afraid, be very afraid
Be enthralled
Be still, my beating heart
Beam ends – On your
Bean counter
Beast with two backs
Beat a hasty retreat
Beat around the bush
Beat swords into ploughshares
Beat the living daylights out of someone
Beauty is in the eye of the beholder
Beauty is only skin deep
Beck and call
Bed of roses
Bee in your bonnet
Beef and reef
Beelzebub has a devil for a sideboard
Been there, done that
Beer and skittles
Bee-line – make a bee-line for
Bee’s knees – The
Beetle-browed
Before you can say Jack Robinson
Beg the question
Beggar belief
Beggars can’t be choosers
Behind every great man there’s a great woman
Behind the eight ball
Bell, book and candle
Bell the cat
Belle of the ball
Below the belt
Below the salt
Bells and whistles
Belt and braces
Belt up
Best bib and tucker
Best laid schemes of mice and men – The
Bet your bottom dollar
Better half
Better late than never
Better to have loved and lost than never to have loved at all
Between a rock and a hard place
Between the Devil and the deep blue sea
Between two stools
Between you, me and the bed-post
Beware of Greeks bearing gifts
Beware the Ides of March
Beyond belief
Beyond our ken
Beyond the pale
Biblical phrases
Big Apple – The
Big cheese – The
Big Easy – The
Big fish in a small pond – A
Big wig
(A) bigger bang for your buck
Bill Stickers is innocent
Billy-o – Like
Billy no mates
Binge drinking
Bird in the hand is worth two in the bush – A
Birds and the bees – The
Birds of a feather flock together
Bite the bullet
Bite the dust
Bitter end – The
Black as Newgate’s knocker
Black-on-black
Black sheep of the family
Blast from the past – A
Blaze a trail
Blind leading the blind – The
Blind-man’s buff
Bling-bling
Blonde bombshell
Blood and thunder
Blood is thicker than water
Blood toil tears and sweat
Blood, sweat and tears
Bloody-minded
Blot on the landscape
Blow a raspberry – see raspberry tart
Blow your mind
Blow your own trumpet
Blown to smithereens
Blue blood
Blue moon (Once in a)
Blue-plate special
Bob’s your uncle
Bode well
Bodice ripper
Body – phrases related to the human body
Body surfing
Bog standard
Bolt from the blue
Bone dry
Bone idle
Bone up on
Booby prize
Booby trap
Boogie-woogie
To big for your boots
Booze cruise
Born again
Born with a silver spoon in one’s mouth
Born within the sound of Bow Bells
Boss eyed
Bottle out
Bottom drawer
Bottom-up
Bought the farm
Bowled a maiden over
Box and Cox
Box-seat – in the
Boxing Day
Brand spanking new
Brass monkey weather
Brass tacks – get down to
Bread always falls buttered side down
Bread of life – The
Break a leg
Break the ice
Bricks and clicks
Bring home the bacon
Broad in the beam
Broke – if it ain’t, don’t fix it
Brook no truck with
Bronx cheer
Brown as a berry
Browned off
Brownie points
Brummagem screwdriver
Brush – As daft as a
Bubble and squeak
Buck stops here – The
Bucket list
Buckle down
Bugger Bognor!
Buggins’ turn
Bullet – Bit the, Bite the
Bums on seats
Bun in the oven
Bunch of fives – A
Bunny boiler
Burn the candle at both ends
Burning the midnight oil
Bury the hatchet
Bury your head in the sand
Busy as a bee
Butt end of the stick – The
Butter no parsnips – Fine words
Butter side down
Butter wouldn’t melt in his mouth
Butterfingers
By and large
By dint of
By gum
By hook or by crook
By the board
By the book
By the short hairs
By the skin of your teeth
By your leave
Bygones be bygones – Let
Caesar Salad
Call a spade a spade
Call of the wild – The
Camera cannot lie – The
Can’t be overestimated/can’t be underestimated
Can’t hold a candle to
Canteen culture
Canterbury pace
Carbon-copy
Carbon footprint
Card-sharp
Carey Street – On
Carpe diem
Carry coals to Newcastle
Cart before the horse – Put the
Carte blanche
Cash on the nail
(Ne’er) cast a clout till May be out
Cast the first stone
Cat got your tongue?
Cat may look at a king – A
Cat out of the bag – Let the
Catbird seat – In the
Catch 22
Cat’s Cradle
Caught in a cleft stick
Caught by the short hairs
Caught red-handed
Chain is only as strong as its weakest link – A
Chaise lounge
Chalk and cheese
Champ at the bit
Chance would be a fine thing
Channel surfing
Charity begins at home
Charley horse
Charm offensive
Charmed life
Cheap at half the price
Cheek by jowl
Cherchez la femme
Chew the cud
Chick flick
Chickens come home to roost
Children should be seen and not heard
Chinese whispers
Chinless wonder
Chip off the old block
Chip on your shoulder
Chit-chat
Chock-a-block
Chop and change
Chop-chop
Chow down
Christmas box – A
Christmas card verses
Clean breast – make a
Clear blue water
Cleft stick – In a
Cliff-hanger
Climb on the bandwagon
Cloak and dagger
Clod-hopper
Clog up
Close, but no cigar
Close quarters
Close your eyes and think of England
Cloud cuckoo land
Cloud nine
Clue – don’t have a
Clutch at straws
Coals to Newcastle – Carry
Cobblers – A load of
Cock-a-hoop
Cock-sure
Cock a snook
Cock and bull story
Cock-up
Cockney rhyming slang
Codswallop – a load of
Cogito ergo sum
Coin a phrase
Cold as any stone
Cold comfort
Cold enough to freeze the balls off a brass monkey
Cold feet
Cold shoulder
Cold turkey
Collywobbles – The
Colour up
Come a cropper
Come clean
Come on down
Come up trumps
Come what come may
Comes to the crunch – (When it)
(Coming in) on a wing and a prayer
Common sense
Comparisons are odious
Compassion fatigue
Complete shambles
Cook the books
Cookie cutter
Cool as a cucumber
Cool Britannia
Cop an attitude
Copper-bottomed
Cor blimey
Cordon bleu
Cost an arm and a leg
Cotton on to
Cotton-picking
Countenance more in sorrow than in anger – A
Counting sheep
Country bumpkin
Course of true love never did run smooth – The
Crack of doom – The
Crackpot
Crapper – The
Crocodile tears
Crop up
Crown jewels
Cry havoc and let slip the dogs of war
Curate’s egg
Curiosity killed the cat
Curry favour
Customer is always right – The
Cut and run
Cut of your jib – The
Cut off without a penny
Cut off your nose to spite your face
Cut the mustard
Cut to the chase
Cute as a bug’s ear
Daft as a brush
Damp squib
Dance attendance on
Daniel come to judgement
Darby and Joan
Dark horse
Darkest hour is just before the dawn – The
Dark side – The
Darling buds of May
Dash to pieces
Date rape
Davy Jones’ locker
Daylight robbery
Dead as a dodo
Dead as a doornail
Dead cat bounce
Dead ringer
Delusions of grandeur
Derring-do
Designer stubble
Deus ex machina
Devil and the deep blue sea
Devil Incarnate – The
Devil take the hindmost – The
Devil to pay – The
Devil’s advocate
Diamond in the rough
Diamond is forever – A
Dicky-bird – Not a
Die-hard
Die has been cast – The
As different as chalk and cheese
Different kettle of fish
Differently abled
Dirt bag
Dish fit for the gods – A
Do unto others as you would have them do to you
Dock your pay
Doesn’t know shit from Shinola
Doff your hat
Dog days
Dog in the manger
Dog is a man’s best friend
Dog’s bollocks
Dog’s breakfast
Dog’s dinner
Doldrums – in the
Dollars to donuts
Done a runner
Done to a turn
Donkey’s years
Don’t call us, we’ll call you
Don’t change horses in midstream
Don’t count your chickens before they are hatched
Don’t die like I did
Don’t go there
Don’t have a clue
Don’t keep a dog and bark yourself
Don’t know shit from Shinola
Don’t let the bastards grind you down
Don’t look a gift horse in the mouth
Don’t throw the baby out with the bathwater
Don’t try to teach your Grandma to suck eggs
Doom and gloom
Double cross
Double Dutch
Double entendre
Double whammy
Down at heel
Down in the dumps
Down to the wire
Down the pan
Down the tubes
Drag race
Dragged through a hedge backwards
Draw a blank
Draw your horns in
Dreams of empire
Dressed to the nines
Drink like a fish
Driving while black
Drop-dead gorgeous
Drop in the bucket – A
Dropping like flies
Drummed out of the army
Ducks and drakes
Dumb blonde
Dust up
Dutch – My old
Dutch courage
Duvet day
Ear candy
Early bird catches the worm – The
Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise
Ear-mark
Easy as pie
Eat drink and be merry
Eat humble pie
Eat my hat
Eaten out of house and home
Economical with the truth
Eeny, meeny, miny, mo
Egg on
Eighty six
Elbow-grease
Elementary my dear Watson
Elephant in the room
Elvis has left the building
Emperor’s new clothes
End of story
Ends of the earth – The
Englishman’s home is his castle
Eponymous Phrases
Et tu, Brute
Ethnic cleansing
Euphemisms

Even at the turning of the tide
Every cloud has a silver lining
Everybody out
Exceedingly well read
Exception that proves the rule – The
Excuse me while I kiss this guy
Excuse my French
Extraordinary rendition
Eye candy – see ear candy
(An) eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth
Eye of newt and toe of frog, wool of bat and tongue of dog
Face that launched a thousand ships – The
Face the music
Faff about
Failing to plan is planning to fail
Faint-hearted
Fair and square
Fair dinkum
Fair play
Fair to middling
Fairy-tale ending
Fait accompli
Faith will move mountains
Fall from grace
Fall guy
Fall off the back of a lorry
Fall on your sword
Famous for fifteen minutes
Famous last words (dying statements of famous people – a list)
Famous last words (the ironic phrase)
Fancy free
Fancy pants
Fanny Adams – Sweet
Far be it from me
Far from the madding crowd
Farmers
Fashion victim
The word fast, and phrases that derive from it.
Fast and loose
Fast asleep
Fathom out
(The) fat of the land
Fate worse than death – A
Feather in one’s cap – A
Fed up
Feeding frenzy
(It) fell off the back of a truck
Fell swoop – At one
Fellow traveller
Female of the species is more deadly then the male – The
Fend off
Fiddlesticks
Fiddling while Rome burns
Fie, foh, fum, I smell the blood of an Englishman
Field day
Fifteen minutes of fame
Fifth column
Fight fire with fire
Fight the good fight
Filthy rich
Finagle’s Law
Fine as frog’s hair
Fine words butter no parsnips
Finger lickin good
Fingers and thumbs
First water
First World
Fish rot from the head down
Fish or cut bait
Fish out of water – A
As fit as a butcher’s dog
Fit as a fiddle
Fifth column
Fifth estate
Fits and starts
Fits to a tee
Five o’clock shadow
Fixer-upper
Flash in the pan
Flat out
Flavor of the month
Flesh and blood
Flogging a dead horse
Floozie in the jacuzzi – The
Flotsam and jetsam
Fly by the seat of one’s pants
Fly in the ointment
Fly off the handle
Fly on the wall
Foam at the mouth
Fobbed off
Folk Etymology – The Nonsense Nine
Fool and his money are soon parted – A
Fools rush in where angels fear to tread
Fool’s errand
Fool’s gold
Fool’s paradise – A
Foot in the door – A
Foot of our stairs – The
For all intents and purposes
For crying out loud
For ever and a day
For every thing there is a season
For good measure
For keeps
For the birds
For whom the bell tolls
Forbidden fruit
Foregone conclusion
Forewarned is forearmed
Forgive them for they know not what they do
Forlorn hope
Foul play
Four by two
Four corners of the earth
Frailty, thy name is woman
Freeze the balls off a brass monkey – cold enough to
Freezing temperatures
French phrases
Friday afternoon car
Friend in need is a friend indeed – A
Friends, Romans, Countrymen, lend me your ears
Frog in the throat – A
Frog’s hair- as fine as
From pillar to post
From sea to shining sea
From strength to strength
Fruits of your loins
Fuddy-duddy
Full Monty – The
Full of piss and vinegar
Full tilt
Full to the gunwales
Funny farm
Fuzzy wuzzy
Gad zooks (or gadzooks)
Game is afoot – The
Game is up – The
Game of two halves
Gee whiz
Generation X
Genius is one percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration
Get a word in edgeways
Get down to brass tacks
Get medieval
Get off on the wrong foot
Get off your high horse
Get on my wick
Get one’s dander up
Get over it
Get the pip
Get the sack
Get the upper hand
Get thee behind me Satan
Get underway
Get used to it
Get your dander up
Get your goat
Giddy aunt
Giddy goat
Gild the lily
Gilt off the gingerbread
Ginned up
Ginger
Ginger up
Give a man a fish and you will feed him for a day
Give a wide berth
Give no quarter
Give the Devil his due
Give up the ghost
Glass ceiling
Gloom and doom
Go and boil your head
Go berserk
Go by the board
Go by the book
Go Dolally
Go-faster
Go for a burton
Go haywire
Go like the clappers
Go off half-cocked
Go out on a limb
Go postal
Go over like a lead balloon
Going to hell in a handbasket
Go pound sand
Go the whole hog
Go to pot
Go to the dogs
Go to the foot of our stairs
Go to the mattresses
Go whole hog
God is dead
God rot them
Godfrey Daniel
Going for a burton
Golden key can open any door – A
GOLF – Gentlemen only, ladies forbidden
Gone for a burton
Good as gold
Good in parts
Good man is hard to find – A
Good measure – For
Good men and true
Good riddance
Good Samaritan
Goody, goody gumdrops
Goody two-shoes
Gordon Bennett
Got my mojo working
Grace of God – There but for …
(Take with a) grain of salt
Grand slam
Grandfather clock
Granny dumping
Grasp the nettle
Grass up
Graveyard shift
Greased lightning
Great balls of fire
Great minds think alike
Great unwashed – the
Green eyed monster
Gregory Peck
Gridlock
Grind to a halt
Grinning like a Cheshire cat
Grist to the mill
Gry – Words ending in
Guinea pig
Gung ho
Gussied-up
Guts for garters
Hair of the dog that bit you
Hairy eyeball
Halcyon days
Half-cocked
Half-hearted
Half inch
Hand over fist
Handbags at ten paces
Handle with kid gloves
Hands down
Hanged, drawn and quartered
Hanky-panky
Happy as a clam
Happy as a sandboy
Happy as Larry
Happy clappy
Happy slapping
Harbinger of doom
Hard and fast
Hard cases make bad law
Hard cheese
Hard hearted
Hard lines
Hard man is good to find – A
Hark, hark! the lark at heaven’s gate sings
Harp on
Harvest moon
Has the cat got your tongue?
Hasta la vista, baby
Hat trick
Have a Captain Cook
Have a dekko
Have an axe to grind
Have an inkling
Have no truck with
Haven’t got a clue
Have your guts for garters
He who can, does; he who cannot, teaches
He who laughs last laughs longest
He will give the Devil his due
Head over heels
Heads up
Hear hear
Heard it through the grapevine
Heart’s content
Heavens to Betsy
Heavens to Murgatroyd
Heavy metal
Heebie-jeebies – The
Hedge your bets
Hell in a handbasket
Hell has no fury like a woman scorned
Hell or high water
Helter-skelter
Here lies one whose name is writ in water
Het up
Hiding to nothing – On a
Higgledy-piggledy
High and dry
High and mighty
High as a kite
High five
High-flyer
High horse – get off your
High on the hog
High time
High, wide and handsome
Hissy fit
History is bunk
Hit the ground running
Hit the hay
Hit the nail on the head
Hither and yon
Hobson’s choice
Hobby-horse
Hocus pocus
Hoi polloi
Hoist with your own petard
Hoity-toity
(Can’t) hold a candle to
Hold your horses
Homonyms
Honesty is the best policy
Hooray Henry
Horse and cart
Horse feathers
Horse-sense
Horse, a horse, my kingdom for a horse – A
Horse’s mouth – straight from the
Hot-blooded
Hot off the press
Hot on the heels
House divided against itself cannot stand – A
Household words
Houston, we have a problem
How are the mighty fallen?
How do you do?
How now brown cow?
How sharper than a serpent’s tooth it is to have a thankless child
Hugger-mugger
Hung, drawn and quartered
Hunky-dory
Hunt and peck
Hush puppies
I bear a charmed life
I have not slept one wink
I have nothing to declare but my genius
I have nothing to offer but blood toil tears and sweat
I haven’t got a clue
I see you stand like greyhounds in the slips
I spy with my little eye
I told you is was ill
I will swing for you
I will wear my heart upon my sleeve
Identity theft
(Beware the) Ides of March
If I had my druthers
If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it
If music be the food of love, play on
If the cap fits
If the mountain will not come to Muhammad, then Muhammad must go to the mountain
If the shoe fits
If wishes were horses, beggars would ride
If you can’t stand the heat, get out of the kitchen
If you think that, you have another think coming
Ill wind
I’ll be there with bells on
I’ll go to the foot of our stairs
I’ll have your guts for garters
I’m stumped
Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery
In a cleft stick
In a pickle
In a pig’s eye
In a quandary
In a nutshell
In a trice
In an interesting condition
In for a penny, in for a pound
In like Flynn
In limbo
In my minds eye
In someone’s bad books
In spades
In stitches
In the bag
In the box-seat
In the buff
In the cart
In the catbird seat
In the club
In the doghouse
In the doldrums
In the limelight
In the nick of time
In the pink
In the same boat
In your face
Indian giver
Indian summer
Infra dig
Innocent until proven guilty
Inside out
For all intents and purposes
Iron hoof
Is the Pope Catholic?
Is the Pope Polish?
Is this a dagger which I see before me?
It ain’t over till the fat lady sings
It came like a bolt from the blue
It is meat and drink to me
It never rains but it pours
It’s all Greek to me
It’s all grist to the mill
It’s better to give than to receive
It’s better to light a candle than curse the darkness
It’s not rocket science
It’s that man again
Ivory tower
Jack in the box
Jack of all trades, master of none
Jack Palancing
Jack – phrases that include the name Jack
Jack Robinson – Before you can say
Jack the lad
Jam tomorrow
Jerry built
Jet-black
Jimmy Horner
Jimmy Riddle
Jobs for the boys
Join the colours
Joined at the hip
Johnny on the spot
Jot or tittle
Jump on the bandwagon
Jump the gun
Jump the shark
Jury is still out
Just deserts
Just in time
Kangaroo court
Katy bar the door
Keep a wide berth
Keen as mustard
Keep body and soul together
Keep schtum
Keep a stiff upper lip
Keep at bay
Keep it under your hat
Keep the ball rolling
Keep up with the Joneses
Keep your chin up
Keep your distance
Keep your hands clean
Keep your nose clean
Keep your nose to the grindstone
Keep your pecker up
Keep your powder dry
Keepy-uppy
Kettle of fish
Khyber pass
Kick the bucket
Kick your heels
Kickin’ – Alive and
Kilroy was here
King James’ Version of the Bible
Kiss and tell
Kiss me Hardy
(The whole) kit and caboodle
Knee-jerk reaction
Knick-knack
Knight in shining armour
Knock back
Knock into a cocked hat
Knock off
Knock on wood
Know the ropes
Know your onions
Know which way the wind blows
Knuckle down
Knuckle under
Kowtow to
La-di-da
La dolce vita
Labour of love
Lackadaisical
Ladies’ room
Lager frenzy
Laid out in lavender
La-la land
Lamb to the slaughter
Lame duck
Land of nod – The
Lardy-dardy
Lark about
Last but not least
Last straw – The
Latin Phrases
Laugh like a drain
Laughing-stock
Laurels – rest on one’s
The law is an ass
Lay it on with a trowel
Lead balloon – Go over like a
Lead-pipe cinch
Learn the ropes
Left hand doesn’t know what the right hand is doing
Left in the lurch
Legend in one’s own lifetime
Leopard cannot change its spots – A
Less is more
Let a thousand flowers bloom
Let bygones be bygones
Let not poor Nelly starve
Let not the sun go down on your wrath
Let or hindrance
Let sleeping dogs lie
Let the cat out of the bag
Let them eat cake
Let there be light
Let your hair down
Let’s roll
Level playing field
Lick and a promise
Lick into shape
Lickety-split
Lie low
Lies, damned lies and statistics
Life begins at forty
Life in the 1500s – folk etymologies
Life of Riley
Life’s not all beer and skittles
Life’s too short
Like a chicken with its head cut off
Like a moth to a flame
Like being savaged by a dead sheep
Like billy-o
Like it or lump it
Like the clappers
Like the Dickens
Like two peas in a pod
Lily-livered
Little bird told me – A
Little knowledge is a dangerous thing – A
Little of what you fancy does you good – A
Lions led by donkeys
Live long and prosper
Living daylights
Living off the fat of the land
Living on borrowed time
Lo and behold
Load of cobblers
Load of codswallop
Loaf of bread
Local derby
Lock stock and barrel
Long in the tooth
Look before you leap
Loose cannon
Loose lips sink ships
Lose face
Lose your marbles
Love is blind
Love that dare not speak its name – The
Loved-up
Lunatic fringe
Mad as a hatter
Mad as a March hare
Magical realism
Main chance
Make a bee-line for
Make a clean breast of it
Make a pig’s ear of
Make a virtue of necessity
Make haste
Make hay while the sun shines
Make him an offer he can’t refuse
Make my day
Make no bones about
Make your hair stand on end
Mal de mer
Man after my own heart – A
Man does not live by bread alone
Man who is his own lawyer has a fool for a client – A
A dog is a man’s best friend
Man’s inhumanity to man
Many a little makes a mickle
Many are called but few are chosen
Many happy returns
Many a true word is spoken in jest
‘March’ phrases
Mare’s nest
Marital aid
Market forces
Marry in haste, repent at leisure
May you live in interesting times
McCoy – The real
Mea culpa
Meat and drink
Meat and two veg.
Meet your Waterloo
Men in suits
Mend fences
Ménage à trois
Men’s evil manners live in brass; their virtues we write in water
Merry Christmas
Method in my madness
Mexican wave
Mickey Finn
Middle for diddle
Middle of the road
Might and main
(The pen is) mightier than the sword
Mighty oaks from little acorns grow
Milk of human kindness
Minced oaths
Mind your Ps and Qs
Mind’s ear
Mind’s eye
Ministering angel shall my sister be – A
Mint condition
Misery acquaints a man with strange bedfellows
Misquotes
Miss is as good as a mile
Moaning Minnie
Mondegreens
Montezuma’s Revenge
‘Money’ phrases
Money for old rope
Monstrous regiment of women
Monty – The full
Moot point
Morbid obesity
More bang for your buck
More fool you
More honoured in the breach than in the observance
More light!
Morning person
Mother country
Motley crew
Mouth-watering
Movable feast
Movers and shakers
Moving finger writes – The
Moving the goalposts
Much Ado about Nothing
Much of a muchness
Mud – your name is
Multitude of sins
Mumbo jumbo
Mum’s the word
Murphy’s Law
Music has charms to soothe the savage breast
Mutt’s nuts – The
Mutt and Jeff
Mutton dressed as lamb
My bad
My better half
My cup of tea
My cup runneth over
My giddy aunt
My husband and I
My mind’s eye
My old china
My old Dutch
My salad days
My stars and garters
Nail your colours to the mast
Namby-pamby
Name and shame
Name is mud
Nasty, brutish and short
Nation of shopkeepers – A
Nautical phrases
Necessity is the mother of invention
Ne’er cast a clout till May be out
Ne’er do well
Needs must
Neither a borrower nor a lender be
Neither fish nor flesh, nor good red herring
Neither here nor there
Nest-egg
Nest of vipers – A
Never give a sucker an even break
Never knowingly undersold
Never look a gift horse in the mouth
Never-never land
Never the twain shall meet
New kid on the block
Nice as ninepence
Nice kettle of fish
(In the) nick of time
Night owl
Nine days’ wonder
Nip and tuck
Nip in the bud
Nitty-gritty
No-brainer
No dice
No holds barred
No laughing matter
No man is an island
No more cakes and ale?
No names: no pack-drill
No quarter given
No rest for the wicked
No room to swing a cat
No truck with
No way, Jose
Nod is as good as a wink – A
Nod – The land of
Norange – A
Nosy parker
Not a dicky-bird
Not my cup of tea
Not for all the tea in China
Not playing with a full deck
Not rocket science
Not tonight Josephine
Not worth a plugged nickel
Not worth the candle
Nothing is certain but death and taxes
Nothing succeeds like success
Now is the winter of our discontent
Nth degree
Nul points
Nutshell – In a
O Romeo, Romeo! wherefore art thou Romeo?
O ye, of little faith
Odds bodkins
Off his own bat
Off the record
Off with his head
Offing – In the
Oh, my stars and garters
Oh, they have slain the Earl of Moray and Lady Mondegreen
Okay
Okey-dokey
Old as Methuselah
Old as the hills
Old chestnut
Old codger
Old hat
Old lang syne – see auld lang syne
On a hiding to nothing
On a wing and a prayer
On Carey Street
On cloud nine
On queer street
On tenterhooks
On the ball
On the bubble
On the button
On the dole
On the fiddle
On the pig’s back
On the QT
On the shoulders of giants
On the wagon
On the warpath
On with the motley
On your beam ends
On your tod
Once in a blue moon
Once more unto the breach, dear friends, once more
One-hit wonder
One fell swoop – At
One for the road
One foot in the grave
One over the eight
One sandwich short of a picnic
One small step for man
One stop shop
One swallow doesn’t make a summer
One’s heart’s content
Oops-a-daisy
Open season
(The) order of the boot
Ough – the many ways to pronounce
Out of sight
Out of sight, out of mind
Out of sorts
Out of the jaws of death
Out of the mouths of babes and sucklings
Out on a limb
Over a barrel
Over the moon
Over the top
Overpaid, oversexed, and over here
Oxo cube
Ps and Qs – Mind your
Packed to the gunwales
Paddle your own canoe
Paint the town red
Panic stations
Paper tiger
Parting shot / Parthian shot
Pass over to the other side
Pass the buck
Paying guest – A
P.D.Q. – pretty damn quick
Pearls before swine
Pears for your heirs
Peeping Tom
Peg out
Pell-mell
(The) pen is mightier than the sword
Pennies from heaven
Penny dreadful
(The) penny drops
Penny pinching
Penny for your thoughts – A
Penny saved is a penny earned – A
Penny wise and pound foolish
Pester power
Peter out
Petty cash
Physician heal thyself
Pick ‘n’ mix
Picture is worth a thousand words – A
Picture-perfect
Pie – as easy as
Pie in the sky
Piece of cake – A
Piece of piss
Piece of the action
Pig in a poke
Pigeon-chested
Pig’s back – on the
Pig’s ear
(In a) pig’s eye
Pig and whistle
Piggyback
Pigs might fly
Pin money
(Take with a) pinch of salt
Pip – Get the/got the /have the
Pipe down
Pipe dream – A
Piping hot
Piss and vinegar – Full of
Pitch black
Pitch dark
Place for everything and everything in its place – A
Plague on both your houses – A
Plain sailing
Plates of meat
Play by ear
Play Devil’s advocate
Play ducks and drakes
Play fast and loose
Play it again Sam
Play second fiddle
Play silly buggers
Play the giddy goat
Play the race card
Pleased as Punch
Plug-ugly
Plugged nickel
Poetic justice
Point-and-click
Point Percy at the porcelain
Politically correct
Point-blank
Point to point
Pommy bashing
Pomp and circumstance
Pond life
Pony and trap
Pony up
Pop goes the weasel
Popular fallacies – The Nonsense Nine
Pork pies
POSH – Port out, starboard home
Pot calling the kettle black – The
Take potluck
Pound of flesh
Pour oil on troubled waters
Power corrupts; absolute power corrupts absolutely
Power dressing
Powers that be – The
Praying at the porcelain altar
Preaching to the choir
Preposterous
Press into service
Pretty kettle of fish
Pretty penny – A
Prick up your ears
Prime time
Primrose path
Procrastination is the thief of time
Proof of the pudding is in the eating – The
Proverbs – A list of
Pull in your horns
Pull out all the stops
Pull the other one, it’s got bells on
Pull the wool over your eyes
Pull up stakes
Pull your horns in
Pull your finger out
Pull yourself up by your bootstraps
Pulling one’s leg
Punch above one’s weight
Pure as the driven snow
Purple patch
Push the boat out
Push the envelope
Put a damper on
Put a sock in it
Put a spanner in the works
Put on the wooden overcoat
Put on your thinking cap
Put paid to
Put the cart before the horse
Put the mockers on
Put the wood in the hole
Put up your dukes
Put your back up
Put your best foot forward
Put your nose out of joint
Pyrric victory
Quality time
Quarter – Give no
Queer as a nine bob note
Queer Street
Queer the pitch
Quick and the dead – The
Quicker than lager turns to piss
Quid pro quo
Quotations
Rabbit and pork
Rack and ruin
Rack your brains
Rag, tag and bobtail
Raining cats and dogs
Raining stair-rods
Raise Cain
Rank and file
Raspberry tart
Raze to the ground
Rat arsed
Read between the lines
Read the riot act
Real McCoy
Red-handed (caught)
Red herring
Red in tooth and claw
Red-letter day
Red rag to a bull – A
Red sky at night …
Red tape
Reduplicated phrases
Religion is the opium of the people
Rest on his laurels
Revenge is a dish best served cold
Rhyme nor reason
Rhyming slang
Richard of York gave battle in vain
Richard the Third
Riddle wrapped up in an enigma – A
Riding shotgun
Riff-raff
Riley – the life of
[That] Rings a bell
Ring a ring o’roses, a pocketful of posies, atishoo, atishoo, all fall down
Ring down the curtain
Ring-fencing
Ring the changes
Rinky-dink
Rise and shine
Road less travelled – The
Road apples
Road rage
Roasted to a turn
Rob Peter to pay Paul
Rock and roll
It’s not rocket science
A rolling stone gathers no moss
Romeo, Romeo, wherefore art thou Romeo?
Rose by any other name would smell as sweet – A
Rose is a rose is a rose
Rosie Lea
Rough diamond
Round Robin
Route one
Rub of the green
Rule of thumb
Rum do
Rumpy-pumpy
Run a mile
Run amok
Run of the mill
Run out of steam
Run rings around
Run the gauntlet
Sacred cow
Safe as houses – As
Safe pair of hands – A
Safe sex
Salad days
Salt of the earth – The
San fairy Ann
Sandwich short of a picnic
Save face
Save one’s bacon
Saved by the bell
Savoir faire
Say cheese
Say goodnight Gracie
Scapegoat
Scarper
Scot-free
Scott (Sir Walter – phrases coined by)
Screw your courage to the sticking place
‘Scuse me while I kiss this guy
Sea change
Sealed with a loving kiss
Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness
Second-guess
Security blanket
See a pin and pick it up, all the day you’ll have good luck; see a pin and let it lie, bad luck you’ll have all day
See red
Seen better days
Send packing
Senior citizen
Sent to Coventry
Separate the sheep from the goats
Set one’s cap at
Set your teeth on edge
Sex and shopping
Seven-year itch
Sexton Blake
Shebang – The whole
Shaggy dog story
Shake a leg
Shakers and movers
Shakespeare (phrases and sayings of)
Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?
Shambles
Shanks’ mare/shanks’ pony
Share and share alike
Shilly-shally
Ship shape and Bristol fashion
Shit end of the stick – The
Shit for brains
Shiver my timbers
Shoddy
Short end of the stick – The
Shot across the bows
Shot heard ’round the world – The
Shot in the arm
Shot in the dark
Shoot through
Short shrift
Show a leg – see shake a leg
Show your mettle
Shrinking violet
Shuffle off this mortal coil
Shut your cake-hole
Siamese twins
Sick puppy (A)
Sight for sore eyes (A)
Silly Billy
Silly season
Silver lining – every cloud has a
Sir Walter Scott (phrases coined by)
Silence is golden
Silver bullet
Similes
Sitting pretty
Sixes and sevens – At
Skeleton in the closet
Skid row
Skin and blister
(By the) skin of your teeth
(The) sky’s the limit
Sledgehammer to crack a nut – A
Sleep like a top
Sleep on a clothesline
Sleep tight
Sleeveless errand
Sloane Ranger
Slush fund
Smallest room in the house – The
Smart casual
Smoke and mirrors
Snug as a bug in a rug
So sue me
Soap-dodger
Sod’s Law
Sold down the river
Some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon ’em
Some men are born mediocre, some men achieve mediocrity, and some men, have mediocrity thrust upon them
Someone is walking over my grave
Something for the weekend sir?
Something old, something new, something borrowed, something blue
Son of a bitch
Son of a gun
Sorry sight
Sound bite
Sound out
Sour grapes
Space, the final frontier
Spare the rod and spoil the child
Speak of the Devil
Speak softly and carry a big stick
Special relationship
Spelling-bee
Spend a penny
Spick and span
Spill the beans
Spin doctor
Spitting feathers
Spitting image
Spoonerisms
Spring forward, fall back
Spruce-up
Square meal
Squeaky bum time
Stand and deliver
Stand up guy
Standing on the shoulders of giants
Star-crossed lovers
Stark, raving mad
Stars and garters – My
Start from scratch
Steal a march
Steal my thunder
Stick in the mud
Sticks and stones may break my bones
Sticky wicket
Stiff upper lip
Stiffen the sinews
Stinking rich
Stitch in time saves nine – A
Stone the crows
Stone’s throw
Stony-hearted
Stool pigeon
Storm in a teacup
Straight as a die
Straight from the horse’s mouth
Strain at the leash
Strait-laced
Strait and narrow
Stranger danger
Stranger than fiction – Truth is
Strike while the iron is hot
Stuff and nonsense
Stump up
Such is life
Surf and turf
Surfing the Net/surfing the Internet/surfing the Web
Survival of the fittest
Suspension of disbelief
Swan song
Sweet Fanny Adams
Swing for you
Swing the lead
Tail wagging the dog – The
Take a back seat
Take care of the pence and the pounds will take care of themselves
Take down a peg or two
Take potluck
Take the bit between your teeth
Take the cake
Take the gilt off the gingerbread
Take the Mickey
Take the upper hand
Take umbrage
Take with a grain of salt
Taken aback
Talk of the Devil
Talk the talk
Talk through one’s hat
Talk to the hand
Tall story
Tanstaafl – (there’s no such thing as a free lunch)
Tattoo phrases and sayings
Tawdry
Tea leaf
Technicolor yawn
Tell it to the marines
Tempest in a teapot
Test your mettle – see show your mettle
That’s all folks!
That’s all she wrote
That’s one small step for a man, a giant leap for mankind
The ants are my friends, they’re blowing in the wind
The apple of my eye
The back of beyond
The balance of power
The balance of trade
The bane of my life
The bee’s knees
The belle of the ball
The best laid schemes of mice and men
The Big Apple
The Big Easy
The birds and the bees
The bitter end
The blind leading the blind
The bread of life
The buck stops here
The call of the wild
The camera cannot lie
The chickens come home to roost
The collywobbles
The course of true love never did run smooth
The crack of doom
The Crapper
The customer is always right
The cut of your jib
The dark side
The darkest hour is just before the dawn
The Devil Incarnate
The Devil is in the details
The Devil take the hindmost
The Devil to pay
The die has been cast
The early bird catches the worm
The elephant in the room
The emperor’s new clothes
The ends of the earth
The exception which proves the rule
The face that launched a thousand ships
The fat of the land
The female of the species is more deadly then the male
The fifth estate
The floozie in the jacuzzi
The fly in the ointment
The full monty
The game is afoot
The game is up
The great unwashed
The hair of the dog that bit you
The hairy eyeball
The heebie-jeebies
The jury is still out
The land of nod
The last straw
The law is an ass
The life of Riley
The living daylights
The love that dare not speak its name
The monstrous regiment of women
The moving finger writes
The mutt’s nuts
The nth degree
The opera ain’t over till the fat lady sings
The pen is mightier than the sword
The pip – Get/got/have
The pot calling the kettle black
The powers that be
The proof of the pudding is in the eating
The quick and the dead
The real McCoy
The road less travelled
The road to hell is paved with good intentions
The salt of the earth
The seven-year itch
The short end of the stick
The shot heard ’round the world
The sky’s the limit
The smallest room in the house
The straw that broke the camel’s back
The tail wagging the dog
The toast of the town
The third degree
The triumph of hope over experience
The upper hand
The usual suspects
The whole kit and caboodle
The whole nine yards
The whole shebang
The writing is on the wall
The year dot
The Yellow Peril
There is more than one way to kill a cat
There are three kinds of lies…
There but for the grace of God, go I
There is no alternative
There’s an R in the month
There’s method in my madness
There’s no such thing as a free lunch (Tanstaafl)
There’s no such thing as bad publicity
There’s one (a sucker) born every minute
They couldn’t hit an elephant at this distance
Thick and thin
As thick as thieves
Thin air – Vanish into
Thing of beauty is a joy forever – A
Things that go bump in the night
Think outside the box
Thinking cap
Third degree – The
Third time lucky
Thomas Paine – The writings of
Thorn in the flesh
Thou shalt not kill
Though this be madness, yet there is method in it
Three score and ten
Three sheets to the wind
Three strikes and you are out
Through thick and thin
Throw in the towel
Throw your hat into the ring
Thumbs up
Thus far into the bowels of the land
Ticked off
Tickle the ivories
Tickled pink
Tide over
Tie the knot
Till the cows come home
Time and tide wait for no man
Tinker’s dam
Tilting at windmills
Tissue of lies
Titfer
Tit for tat
Tits up
To a T
To all intents and purposes
To be or not to be, that is the question
To beggar belief
To boldly go where no man has gone before
To boot
To cast the first stone
To err is human; to forgive divine
To gild refined gold, to paint the lily
To sleep: perchance to dream: ay, there’s the rub
To the manner born
To the nth degree
To travel hopefully is a better thing than to arrive
Toast of the town
Toe the line
Toe-curling
Toffee-nosed
Tommy Atkins
Tomorrow is another day
Tomorrow is another day
Tongue in cheek
Too big for your breeches
Too much of a good thing
Toodle-oo
Tooth and nail
Top dog
Top drawer
Top notch
Topsy-turvy
Total shambles
Touch and go
Touch with a barge-pole – Wouldn’t
Touch wood
Touchy-feely
Tout de suite
Tower of strength
Train surfing
Trick or treat
Trip the light fantastic
Trouble and strife
True blue
Truth is stranger than fiction
Truth will out
Tuckered out
Turn a blind eye
Turn of phrase
Turn the tables
Turn up for the books
Turn up trumps
Twelve good men and true
Twenty three skidoo
Twenty four seven
Two cents worth
Two heads are better than one
Two peas in a pod
Under the thumb
Under your hat – Keep it
Under the auspices of
Get – underway
Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown
Union Jack
The great – unwashed
The – unkindest cut of all
Up a blind alley
Up a gum tree
Up shit creek without a paddle
Up the apples and pears
Up the duff
Up the pole
Up the wooden hill to Bedfordshire
Up to snuff
Upper crust
Upper hand
Up in arms
Ups-a-daisy
Upset the apple-cart
Upside down
Urban myth
Use your loaf
Usual suspects – The
Using a sledgehammer to crack a nut
Valentine’s Day Poems and Sayings
Van surfing
Vanish into thin air
Veg out
Verbosity leads to unclear, inarticulate things
Vice versa
Vicious circle
Vis-a-vis
Visit the ladies’ room
Vorsprung Durch Technik
Walk free
Walk the walk
Walk the plank
Walter Scott (phrases coined by)
Warts and all
Watch the birdie
(A) watched pot never boils
Watching brief
Wave a red rag to a bull
Wax lyrical
Wax poetic
We are a grandmother
We are not amused
We few, we happy few, we band of brothers
We have seen better days
We know where you live
Weakest link – A chain is only as strong as its
Wear the trousers
Wear your heart on your sleeve
Weasel words
Wee-wee
Well heeled
Well read
Wet behind the ears
What a piece of work is man
What are you like?
What football is all about
What God has joined together let no man put asunder
What part of no don’t you understand?
What you see is what you get – wysiwyg
What’s in a name? That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet
What’s not to like?
What’s up Doc?
When in Rome, do as the Romans do
When it comes to the crunch
When pigs fly
When the shit hits the fan
Where there’s muck there’s brass
Whet your appetite
Which is which?
Which witch is which?
While you live, tell truth and shame the Devil!
Whip round
Whipper snapper
Whipping boy
Whistle and flute
Whistle blower
Whistle down the wind
White as snow
White bread
White elephant
Whole kit and caboodle – The
Whole-hearted
Whole nine yards – The
Whole shebang – The
Whoops-a-daisy
Why does bread always fall butter side down?
Wick – you get on my
Wide berth – Keep a
Wild and woolly
Wild goose chase
Willy nilly
Win hands down
Win one for the Gipper
(On a) wing and a prayer
Wing it
Winter drawers on
Wish you were here
With bells on
Without let or hindrance
Without so much as a by your leave
Woe betide you
Woe is me
Wolf in sheep’s clothing
Woman needs a man like a fish needs a bicycle – A
Woman’s place is in the home – A
Women and children first
Wooden hill to Bedfordshire
Word association football
Word for word
Word in edgeways – A
Word in your shell-like – A
Words ending in gry
Worse for wear
Worth one’s salt
Wotcher
Wouldn’t touch with a barge-pole
Wreak havoc
Writing is on the wall – The
Wrong end of the stick – The
Yada yada
Year dot – The
Yellow-belly
Yellow Peril
You are what you eat
You can lead a horse to water but you can’t make it drink
You can lead a whore to culture but you can’t make her think
You can’t get blood out of a stone
You can’t teach an old dog new tricks
You get on my wick
You look as if you’ve been dragged through a hedge backwards
You’ll wonder where the yellow went when you brush your teeth with Pepsodent
Young turk
Your money or your life
Your name is mud
You’ve never had it so good
Zero tolerance
Zig-zag

外汇场外特性将限制机器学习

20年前,机器学习的原理被应用于外汇交易,但时至今日,这项技术面临的挑战仍然存在,而且更为普遍。

不可否认,在分析市场数据的数量和速度上,机器的能力是人类交易者无法企及的。

然而,机器还必须应对数据的一些特点:不断变动、自相关性——今天的价格很大程度上取决于昨天的价格、低信噪比,这要求机器筛选大量无意义的数据,找到有意义的结果。

Quantify Partners共同创始人、量化分析负责人Kris Longmore说,外汇市场的场外性质还意味着,数据可能仅适用于特定的经纪商。

他说:“理想状态下,任何预测算法都将非常强劲,在经纪商供给方面差异很小,但是这仍然是个问题。最后,市场的全天候性质意味着市场数据的取样时间将在考虑范围之内。”

赛讯高级分析师Joséphine de Chazournes在延迟相关问题上指出:“外汇市场是高频资产类别,机器学习尚未支持这种速度。”

“现在有效的策略是多空策略或事件驱动策略,以T+1或T+2模式学习,但是从来都不是实时的,因为在数据中心部署机器学习算法的成本非常高。”

Misys资本市场高级分析师Peter Farley称,公司将继续投资于机器学习,认为它比人类交易更好。然而,他认为外汇市场的分散特质将有碍于广泛采用。

机器学习将改进系统模式,但是主要是一种更复杂的动态误差修正方式,而不是针对将长期记忆和经验与短期新变量加权结合的复杂任务的解决方案。

这是PrincipalGlobal Investors总经理、投资组合经理、宏观货币集团负责人Mark Farrington的观点,他认为,有太多旋转长期周期类似物和动态变动短期变量,从而准确评估、回归、采用权重和概率,使风险投资更具说服力。

他说:“策略上,按季度确定大型投资组合,为投资者提供稳定的年度绝对回报,看起来不是机器的领域,如果机器学习能够成功掌控这一市场领域,可能是因为在决策环中包括一两个非常聪明的人类基金经理。”

从信息理论角度来看,从做出预测时刻开始,随着时间的推移,随机性对基于时间的预测目标的影响加大,因此假定短期影响更具有可预测性是合理的。

Forex Artilect创始人DavidLopez Onate认为,高噪音水平意味着最好使用长期数据创建机器学习模型,同时使用短期图表作为交易触发器。他说:“你在短期时间跨度上使用长期时间框架的信号进行交易。我认为,机器学习对于短期策略或剥头皮(每笔交易中赚取微小的利润)更有效。”

I Know First首席执行官、共同创始人Yaron Golgher解释说,短期内,外汇市场是均值回归形态,而长期来看是趋势性的,因此需要不同的策略。他说:“长期交易者不能忽视在未来宏观经济趋势上提供观点的数据。”

Inpirical研发负责人JohannesTynes说:“短期来看,更多是关于新闻流和交易者行为,必须从更具体的数据中学习。”他认为,机器学习可以适用于短期外汇交易和长期策略。

他指出,在较大程度上,短线交易中使用的数据包括非金融和非量化特点(例如源自实时新闻流和推特模式自然语言处理的指标),而长期模式倾向于更多的围绕传统宏观变量和假设创建。

他说:“模型类型也有所不同。对于短线来说,分类模型有更多应用,尽管回归模型(预测汇率水平和数量)对于两者均有相关性。”

“对于短线交易,在线学习通常是必须的(持续数据流被输入到模型中,用于更新和再训练),但是对于长线应用,最好是在部署相关模型之前,开展模型训练、功能开发、参数调整和静态数据集验证。”

基于机器学习设计一套智能交易系统

机器学习是一个新的领域,它是「基于统计学算法的数据挖掘技术」的另一个名称。计算机日新月异的计算能力提升使机器学习技术成为了可能。

R 语言是一门被世界各地学者开发出来的强有力的编程语言,它被用来执行一些用在机器学习领域的统计学算法。R 语言是可以被免费下载的开源软件。在前面几篇文章中我们讨论了如何使用 R 语言来改良我们的交易系统。在继续之前推荐您先浏览一下 如何用R语言开发自己的基于算法的交易系统 。现在我们面临的问题是如何在开始套用 R 语言提供的不同统计模型之前正确将数据格式化。

前面的有篇文章提到过 ARIMA (自回归积分滑动平均模型)和 GARCH (广义自回归条件异 方差 (模型)。不幸的是,ARIMA+GARCH 的强强组合在预测一个时间段的股票和汇率时表现并不理想。神经网络和向量机是时下被数据分析师们广泛使用的机器学习算法,希望了解更多的读者可以阅览一下我以前介绍向量机的视频内容。

神经网络模拟使用人脑的方式使用人工智能。 随着这篇文章对神经网络和向量机更详细的介绍,读者也可以参照这篇 讨论预测英镑美元之间汇率方法的论文的文章 。当你对金融时间序列进行预测时,你应该尽可能多的使用投资回报来预测,因为其结果往往更准确,神经网络算法非常擅长进行图像识别。除此之外,也可以参考 KNN 近邻取样(Nearest Neighbor)和隐马尔科夫模型算法 (Hidden Markov Chain)。

设计基于机器学习的人工智能股票外汇交易系统

我们希望初步设计一个可以根据预测每日收益来自动进行交易的系统。我们选择一个市场变化的阈值,达到这个阈值后我们才会发生交易操作。举个例子来说,我们想用我们的交易系统来预测一对外汇组合在接下来的 24 小时会朝哪个方向变化,变多少个点。假设我们选择了一组外汇 24 小时内 200 点的变动作为阈值。我们的机器学习算法应该做到能够预测向 2 个方向浮动 200 点的分别的可能性。如果英镑对美元在未来 24 小时内上涨 200 个点的可能性是 70% 到 80%,我们就使用对 K 线图的理解进行低买高卖来获取预期 200 个点的回报。切记,所有的统计算法本质上都是概率性的。

下面就是我们要怎么做。我们先计算我们选定的股票或一组外汇当日的收益,然后再预测下一日的 K 线图。然后再运用上文提到的算法来参照计算得到的每日收益数据组来训练交易系统。一旦我们教会了交易系统每日收益数据组,我们就用它来预测下一日的情况。这样可以帮助我们优化交易选择。就像前面提到的,交易系统其实就是跟概率打交道。这就是说,长期地看,预测成真的平均比率将大致等于该预测的概率。

我们也想缩小范围,以四个小时或者一个小时为单位来预测下一个单位时间的 K 线图来看看预测准确率是否达到70%-80%。如果我们的平均预测成功率超过了70%,就可以考虑去交易市场里赚的风生水起了,所以还等什么?让我们开始吧!

如何把数据读入到R语言内呢?

正如前文所说,我们将会使用 R 语言来进行预测。你可以免费下载 R 语言。下载 R 语言之后,我们需要向其中导入数据。我们拿嘉盛举例。嘉盛的行情交易软件 mt4( metaTrader4 )允许用户下载所有支持外汇组行情的 CSV 格式文件。打开 MT4 软件,选择工具( Tools )历史中心( History Center ).然后下载以今天、过去四小时和一小时为单位的数据文件。然后用下列命令来读取欧元兑美元的每日 CSV 数据文件并导入 R 语言:

quotes <- read.csv(“E:/MarketData/EURUSD1440.csv”, header=FALSE)

其中E指代的是储存欧元兑美元的一日 CSV 文件的磁盘盘符,你也可以把数据文件保存在 C 盘, D 盘等磁盘。注意根据存文件的位置修改命令中的磁盘位置。同样你也可以导入四个小时和一个小时的数据文件:

quotes <- read.csv(“E:/MarketData/GBPUSD240.csv”, header=FALSE)

quotes <- read.csv(“E:/MarketData/EURUSD60.csv”, header=FALSE)

现在以上数据就被读取成了 R 语言中最常用的数据格式——数据框(dataframe)。数据框类似一个矩阵。我们需要把现有的数据框转化成按时间序列表示。就像前面提到过的,股票外汇的价格是与时间紧密联系的,这样就形成了一个价格的时间序列。所以我们需要把原始数据转换成时间序列模式来使 R 语言能够处理。xts 是一个在 R 语言里最好用的时间序列类。 所以我们顺理成章的把前面数据转换成 xts 。现在我们需要使用以下命令来把每日的数据框转化成按日为单位划分的时间序列:

x <- as.xts(quotes[,-(1:2)], as.Date(paste(quotes[,1]),format=’%Y.%m.%d’))

同理,我们也可以转化四小时和一小时的数据框为 xts 时间序列:

x <- as.xts(quotes[,-(1:2)], as.POSIXct(paste(quotes[,1],quotes[,2]),format=’%Y.%m.%d %H:%M’))

发现不同了吗?机智的读者可能已经发现了在按日为单位的时候时间格式是Date %Y.%m.%d,而按小时的时候则是OSIXct %Y.%m.5d %H:%M.为什么呢?这里有个规则。一天之内的时间区间我们需要考虑小时和分钟,而当按天和周为单位的数据我们将忽略小时和分钟,最小时间间隔为小时。在进一步使用上面命令转化好的 xts 时间序列数据之前,不要忘记在时间序列里命名数据列,可以用以下命令实现:

colnames(x) c(‘Open’,’High’,’Low’,’Close’,’Volume’)

显而易见,第一列是索引列并与时间绑定了起来。几个数据列分别是Open,High,Low,Close,Volume.

前面讲到的都是针对 Forex 而言。如果你只是简单的处理股票交易,数据读取会变得简单的多。我们可以直接从 Yahoo 金融下载数据文件,你甚至可以直接从 R 里面下载。R 语言的另一个优点是自动把得到的数据转化成 xts 时间序列。你只需要下载安装 Quantmod 安装包就可以简单做到。安装了 Quantmod 的 R 语言可以被用来实现 K 线图描绘以及大部分的技术性分析工作。Quantmod 的应用将在后面的文章详细解释。现在我们只需要使用下列命令下载亚马逊每日价格:

library(quantmod)

首先我们把 Quantamod 库导入R。

getSymbols(“AMZN”, from = “2010-01-01”, to = “2016-04-05”)

上面的命令可以使我们轻松得到 2010 年到 2016 年每天的股票价格。现在我们需要转化这些数据到不同的格式来满足我们的不同需要。

colnames(AMZN) <- c(“Open”, “High”, “Low”, “Close”, “Volume”, “AdjClose”)

你也可以实用 R语言里的 tseries 库来从网上下载数据,使用下列命令既可:

library(tseries)

AMZN <- as.xts(get.hist.quote(“AMZN”,start=”2010-01-02″, quote=c(“Open”, “High”, “Low”, “Close”,”Volume”,”AdjClose”)))

下面解释一下上面的命令。首先我们导入 tseries 库。然后我们就可以使用 get.hist.quote 命令来下载 Amazon(AMZN)的数据。你可以下载任意股票的数据,简单的将上述命令中的 AMZN 替换成任意你感兴趣的股票代号,R 就会替你自动完成。数据会被下载成 zoo 对象,我们需要将其限制成 xts 时间序列对象。这就是我们在上述命令中使用 as.xts 的原因。

在这篇文章中我们已经展示了如何从 MT4 里面读取 forex 外汇组(数据)以及如何使用 R 语言从网上轻易的读取每日股票交易信息。切记注意下载数据的时间格式是否正确,不正确的时间格式会在使用统计学算法时对训练和预测造成很大影响。比如,我们在上述命令中就使用了 as.xts 来把数据限制成特定的时间序列。

外汇交易中的机器学习的一个案例

随着“AlphaGo”、“无人驾驶”、“大数据处理”等名词不断出现在公众的视野中的时候,人工智能和机器学习这些词被不断的提起。甚至很多人认为:2016年是算法时代的元年,2017年人工智能将会得到更加快速的发展。笔者也相信这是一个趋势,因为基于算法的机器学习是人工智能的核心,运用恰当的话,的确非常强大,给各行各业带来全新的面貌。

目前,在国内外量化交易领域已经有少数CTA策略或者外汇EA会涉及一部分机器学习。那么机器学习到底是如果运作的呢?今天就给大家演示下用简单机器学习去做外汇行情预测。

废话不多说,直接上货吧:

1. 首先,把需要处理的数据准备好,

前三根k线涨幅
当前k线涨幅
下一根大跌(0) /跌(1)/涨(2) /大涨(3)
10.36787091
14.01653763
1
0.56490792
-10.0514786
1
6.024039683
7.334618459
1
14.01653763
-4.792107118
1
-10.0514786
14.47722188
2
7.334618459
31.2593872
3
-4.792107118
11.13596167
0

Mt4中用脚本处理好数据,再写入csv里,作为我们的训练数据。
数据量为1.8万条,数据取样为XAUUSD 1h周期。

2. 导入数据,进行处理,

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np

from sklearn.cross_validation import train_test_split
from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler

#获取经过mt4处理的数据集
data = pd.read_csv(‘XAUUSDtick.csv’)

#数据x,y分类
X = data.iloc[:,[1,2]].values
y = data.iloc[:,[3]].values
y = y.ravel()

X_train,X_test,y_train,y_test = train_test_split(X , y , test_size = 0.35, random_state = 0)
sc = StandardScaler()
sc.fit(X_train)
X_train_std = sc.transform(X_train)
X_test_std = sc.transform(X_test)

3. 用sklearn的感知机模型训练数据
from sklearn.linear_model import Perceptron

#迭代次数1000次,学习率0.3
ppn = Perceptron(n_iter = 1000, eta0 = 0.3, random_state = 0)
ppn.fit(X_train_std,y_train)
y_pred = ppn.predict(X_test_std)
print ‘Misclassified samples:%d’ % (y_test != y_pred).sum()
print ‘Accuracy:%.2f’% accuracy_score(y_test,y_pred)

好,我们运行代码,得到结果:
Misclassified samples:2942
Accuracy:0.47

一个案例看懂外汇交易中的机器学习.png

1. 用逻辑回归模型预测涨跌

from sklearn.linear_model import LogisticRegression

lr = LogisticRegression(C=1000.0 , random_state =0)
lr.fit(X_train_std,y_train)
y_pred = lr.predict(X_test_std)
print ‘Misclassified samples:%d’ % (y_test != y_pred).sum()
print ‘Accuracy:%.2f’% accuracy_score(y_test,y_pred)

运行下:

Misclassified samples:2852
Accuracy:0.49

看看学习之后的曲线:

一个案例看懂外汇交易中的机器学习2.png

好了,以上就是一个简单的机器学习案例。如果你能看懂的话,就会发现它不是那么的高深莫测,写一个机器学习的程序也是比较简单,但是想要得到一个比较好的结果,确是相当困难的。如果你还是不能看懂的话,那就可以通俗的理解为:机器学习就是一个黑匣子(Black Box),你扔一堆数据进去学习下,然后如果效果好的话,你就可以把实时的数据交给它,让它给你一个预测,如果效果不好的话,那就只能继续努力了。

我们从上面这个简单的机器学习可以看到,这个模型是不具有预测性,也就是说效果是不好的。其实,拿机器学习来做金融市场时间序列的预测,结果基本上也是不行的。很多实证的研究也表明金融时间序列的收益都是随机波动的,不具有自相关的特性。

那既然机器学习在预测未来行情上,不具备显著性。那么为什么还要用它呢?

我们都知道,AlphaGO自称一天能和自己下几百万盘棋,它是通过无数次的自我学习战胜了人类棋手。其实,从统计学上来说,机器学习就是能够不断训练,不断的犯错,不断的学习,从而提高估计的精度和概率。那么对于外汇交易来讲,机器学习可以很好的用在交易策略开发上,比如说在策略参数的选择上,我们就可以尝试用机器学习来帮助我们根据行情选择较好的参数。

机器学习还在不断的发展,各种已有的积累也容易被很快的更新和淘汰,想要了解这项技术,不断的学习最前沿的相关知识和理论是必要的。至少能够让我们知道,外汇市场中很多宣传自己的EA是使用人工智能来预测行情的基本上都是在做“销售”。

还是那句话,机器学习没有那么高深莫测,重点是用到合适的地方。

Young Samurai

About this book:

Jack was captured by some ninjas/samurai while he crossed Japan to England.He got sent to a ninja trainning at a mountain side.He stayed there with some other beginer ninjas for several days.He learnt the Sixteen Secret Fist with a senior ninja trainer called Miyuki.His sensei told him that water is a very useful weapon.You can hide in there to hide away from your enemy,arrow can be slower when in water and other useful ways.Once,Jack got into a mission with 3 ninjas to scout what plan is a Evil Lord is planning.Jack had been found and been put into a tiny cage for 1 day without eating or drinking.But Jack had escaped from it and found out that the Evil Lord wants to kill every ninja because he knows that a ninja had killed his father.But the Evil Lord can’t find where Jacks ninja training is at.When Jack returned back,everyone celebrated Jack first (1)mission.Then,when Miyuki poured tea into Jack’s drinking cup they discussed what is different between England and Japan like England people don’t drink much tea and that England people don’t have ninjas or samurai but they have knights which protects the castle/kingdom and the king.One Summer day,it was time to harvest to crops.While they were harvesting they got a rest and then suddenly… the Evil Lords army came and found the ninjas and started to attack.But Jack and the other ninjas won but came some armed samurai that the armour is so strong a sword can’t go through it!But suddenly another army of samurai can and attacked the other samurai.But they turned out to be Hanzo’s uncle’s army.But the commander killed Hanzo’s uncle by cutting his head off.’NO!’screamed Hanzo,he ran all the way to the commander who killed his uncle and battle with him while Jack ran over to help him.Then,Jack used the power of:

And,yeah,the ninjas killed all the samurai and Jack stayed there.